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List January 2023

A desirable copy of the only Dutch edition of the most important work on the Dutch period in Brazil

BARLAEUS, Caspar (1584-1648)
Nederlandsch Brazilië onder het bewind van Johan Maurits Grave van Nassau 1637-1644. Historisch-geographisch-ethnographisch. Naar de Latijnsche uitgave van 1647 voor het eerst in het Nederlandsch bewerkt door S.P. l'Honoré Naber.
's-Gravenhage, Martinus Nijhoff 1923.
Folio (45x30 cm). XVI,442p. With portrait, frontispiece, 67 mostly folding plates, maps and plans, and folding facsimile. Orig. richly gilt decorated overlapping vellum, all edges gilt. Free endpapers show light foxing and some pages show few unobtrusive foxing spots. Nr 25 of a limited edition of 160 copies. A desirable copy. (#23841)
€ 2000


First and only Dutch edition of the most important work on the Dutch period in Brazil, based upon information given to the author by Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen himself. Originally published in Latin in 1647 only a German translation appeared during the seventeenth century. This Dutch adaptation contains several documents not included in the contemporary editions, as well as the reproduction of all nine leaves of the great map of Dutch Brazil, of which only four leaves could be reproduced in the original edition.

Le grand porte-feuille politique, à l'usage des princes et des ministres, des ambassadeurs et des hommes de lois, des officiers généraux de terre et de mer, ainsi que de la noblesse, du haut clergé, des financiers, des voyageurs, amateurs de sciences politiques; et enfin, de tous ceux qui suivent la carrière politique, ou qui s'y destinent ... Dédié aux hommes d'état.
Paris, chez l'auteur ... & Maradan 1789.
Large folio (46 x 59 cm). [VI],XV,[1]p. & 19 double-page tables. Uncut in comtemp. limp boards, worn at edges and back. (#19694)
€ 350

First (only) edition. A statistical survey of the world on the eve of the Revolution in the form of 19 very large tables. The preliminary pages of text treat the principles of government, understood as 'the knowledge of the best means to render a nation prosperous and its inhabitants contented'. The author shows knowledge of economic and demographic theories and stresses the importance of agriculture.
The numbered tables are printed one-sided on folded leaves of c. 58 x 86 cm. Each table treats a specific empire, kingdom, republic, etc., subdivided into the various countries or regions of the powers. The columns give data for population, area, density of population, the major cities and their population, military power, national income, expenses and debt, form of government, administration of justice, religion, morality, clergy, agriculture, commerce, navigation, currency (and its value in French money), and additional observations.
The subsequent (numbered) tables treat the Austrian empire, France and its colonies, Russia, Turkey, Spain, England with Scotland and Ireland, Prussia, Portugal and the two Sicilies, Sardinia and the Papal state, Sweden and Denmark, Poland, Venice and the Dutch republic, the Swiss cantons, the republic of Genoa and the order of Malta, the electorates of Mainz and Treves, the electorate of Cologne and the palatinate of Bavaria, the electorates of Saxony and Hanover, the duchy of Wurtemberg and the landgraviates of Hesse-Cassel and Darmstadt, and the United States of North America.
With the royal approbation leaf leaf dated 7 October 1788.
*INED 330. Not in Kress, Goldsmiths', Einaudi or Sabin.

Best edition of the ‘first modern attempt to create a complete system of political science '

BODIN, Jean (1530-1596)
De republica libri sex, latine ab autore redditi, multo quam antea locupletiores.
Lugduni, et venundantur Parisiis, apud Jacobum Du-Puys [Lyon and Paris, Dupuys] 1586.
Folio (35 x 22,5 cm). [VIII],779,[61]p. With printer's vignette on title, coat of arms on verso and several head- and tail-pieces and decorated initials. Contemp. blind-tooled calf, little rubbed, back expertly repaired, red edges. Small brown stain in upper left corner, far from printed surface, disappearing halfway. (#23549)
€ 7500

First Latin edition, first issue. This Latin edition was translated by Bodin himself. For the translation he made numerous improvements and additions and it is therefore considered the standard edition. The first edition appeared in French in 1576 and was many times reprinted until the beginning of the seventeenth century, and translated into German, English, Italian and Spanish.
‘The Six books of the republic had an immense influence all over Europe. It is, in effect, the first modern attempt to create a complete system of political science. Its basis was the Politics of Aristotle, and it was through Bodin that Aristotle's work came to exercise the influence on modern political thinking which has made him the father of modern democracy. Bodin was not content merely to reproduce his master, however; he added considerably from his own experience. Although like most sixteenth-century writers he approved of absolute government, he demanded its control by constitutional laws, in which respect he foreshadowed the development during the seventeenth century of the idea of the social contract. Thus Bodin was the first to set out clearly the argument round which most political discussion centred in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, that law is merely an expression of the sovereign will, but that where this reposes in an absolute monarch, it must be mitigated by a customary or natural law. When the lawgiver's law becomes unjust, it ceases to be valid and must be resisted.'
First provenance: Thomas Foley, with his armorial bookplate to verso of title ‘Thomas Foley of Great Witley Court in the County of Worcester Esqr.', and identical but smaller bookplate with only ‘Foley' to front paste-down. Probably the ironmaster and Member of Parliament Thomas Foley (1616-1677).
Second provenance: Inscribed on front free endpaper: ‘Herman Heller/ with warm regards/ Harold J.Laski'. Herman Heller (1891-1933), German legal scholar who went into exile in 1933. Harold Joseph Laski (1893-1950), English political theorist and economist. Below the inscription two illegible lines.
*R.Crahay, M.T.Isaac & M.T.Lenger, Bibliographie critique des éditions anciennes de Jean Bodin L1a. Printing and the mind of man 94. En français dans le texte 68.

BUTTE, Wilhelm (1772-1833)
Grundlinien der Arithmetik des menschlichen Lebens, nebst Winken für deren Anwendung auf Geographie, Staats- und Natur-Wissenschaft.
Landshut, Philipp Krüll 1811.
XXXIV,[4],420p. With 9 folding tables. Contemp. half calf, red edges, some wear but a good copy. (#31215)
€ 750

First edition. An essay on political arithmetic by a professor of economics and statistics in Landshut. It is divided into two parts. The first or 'theoretical' part is an attempt to develop 'the principles of the arithmetic of human life'. In a brief historical survey Butte refers to pioneers in the field of political arithmetic like Graunt, Petty, Davenant, Malthus, Deparcieux, Messance, Kersseboom and Süssmilch. This is followed by a typology of human development: 'ideas on the types of human life, comparison of these ideas with observations, harmony of the proportions connected with the types, and special observance and development of the difference of gender and (speculative) inquiry into the laws of all possible variations in sexual life'.
The larger second or 'practical' part treats the application of the arithmetic of human life, this in relation to geographical circumstances, political science and legislation and natural sciences. An abridged French edition of this appeared the next year in Paris (Prolégomènes de l'arithmétique de la vie humaine).
*Kress S.5990. Goldsmiths' 20203. Humpert 12238.

BYNKERSHOEK, Cornelis van (1673-1743)
Verhandelingen van staatszaken, vervat in twee boeken, waar van het eerste handelt van oorlog en vrede. En het twede van zaken van verscheide stof. In het Latyn beschreven ... en nu in 't Nederduitsch overgebragt, door Matth. de Ruusscher, R.G. [En:] Verhandeling over burgerlyke rechts-zaaken, in IV. boeken; met veele gewysdens der beide Hooge Gerechtshoven doormengt. In het Latyn beschreeven ...
Leyden, Johannes van Kerckhem 1740 & Amsterdam, Isaak Tirion 1747.
Samen 4 delen. Met portret. Contemp. leer, ruggen rijk verguld met rood rugschild, hoeken zeer licht gesleten. (#35785)
€ 650


Eerste Nederlandse uitgaven van Quaestiones juris publici libri duo (1737) en van Quaestiones juris privati libri IV (1744). Zowel Dekkers als Star Numan verzijzen naar een Nederlandse uitgave van het eerste werk van 1739, maar die bestaat vermoedelijk slechts in handschrift. De vertaler van het tweede werk is niet bekend, Dekkers kent alleen de Latijnse uitgave.
*Dekkers p.16-18. Star Numan p.469-472.

[CAPELLEN TOT DEN POL, Joan Derk van der (1741-1784)]
Aan het volk van Nederland.
[Zonder plaats 1781.]
76p. Iets gerafeld blauw omslag, naaiwerk zwak. (#10805)
€ 450

Eerste druk? Het beroemde pamflet dat het begin van de patriottenbeweging inluidde, een heftig betoog tegen de stadhouder Willem V en het nepotisme van de regenten. Adriaan Loosjes in zijn boekje over dit pamflet onderscheidt op grond van kleine typografische verschillen drie drukken met datum 1781. Deze druk voldoet aan de kenmerken van zijn A, door hem beschouwd als de oorspronkelijke uitgave ‘omdat zij de meest correcte is ... nadruk onderstelt behoefte en daarom haast'. Volgens Knuttel was hij daar later minder zeker van en achtte hij het mogelijk dat dit een verbeterde nadruk is.
*A.Loosjes, Een krachtig libel, 1886, p.30, A. Knuttel 19864. W.P.C.Knuttel, Verboden boeken 423.

Mathematics in the social sciences

CONDORCET, Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat de (1743-1794)
Essai sur l'application de l'analyse à la probabilité des décisions rendues à la pluralité des voix.
Paris, de l'Imprimerie royale 1785.
4to. [II],CXCI,304p. Uncut in fine recent calf-backed marbled boards, gilt back. A very small old stamp to title. (#31004)
€ 2000

First (only) edition. A pioneering attempt to apply mathematical methods to social phenomena. The Essay on the application of analysis to the probability of majority decisions investigates the probability of decisions taken in political and juridical processes. It also outlines a concept for collective decisions with the highest probability of producing 'correct' answers to particular problems, now known as the Condorcet-method. Condorcet had a great reputation as a mathematician and was since 1769 'perpetual secretary' of the Académie des Sciences. He developed an interest in politics and economics under the influence of his friend Turgot, whom he dedicated a biography, and became one of the major representatives of the idea of republicanism, economic liberalism, social progress and rational education.
Condorcet's mathematics are notoriously abstruse. Todhunter in his history of the theory of probability finds the book 'excessively difficult', adding that it is 'in many cases almost impossible to discover what Condorcet means to say, the obscurity and self contradiction are without any parallel'. Yet it has been recognized as a path-breaking achievement in the early development of the use of mathematics in the social sciences.
*Einaudi 1214. Not in Kress or Goldsmiths'. New Palgrave I,p.567. Todhunter p.351-410.

[CUPPE, Pierre.]
Heaven open to all men: or, a theological treatise, in which, without unsettling the practice of religion, is solidly prov'd by Scripture and reason, that all men shall be saved, or, made finally happy.
London, printed for Jacob Robinson 1743.
XXIV,115p. Finely bound in recent half calf, back lettered gilt, marbled sides. Upper inner corner vaguely stained, browned. (#39257)
€ 350

First English edition, published before the French edition, with a preface by the anonymous translator. A 'mildly deistic' treatise arguing that salvation is universal. Originally written in French this had secretly circulated in manuscript since about 1720 and was first printed in French not before 1768. Written in an anticlerical spirit and, though in the eyes of the modern reader not anti-Christian, banned on the same grounds as the works of Holbach.
'The author states his perplexity in reconciling the conception of God's goodness with the teaching that salvation is reserved for the privileged few. This matter has continually been the subject of his meditation. But having found no satisfactory solution in the orthodox doctrine ... he has originated a new plan of salvation ... If God does not save all men without exception, either it is because He does not wish to, or He is unable to do so, or man is unworthy of salvation. Examining each of these propositions in order, he rejects the first as counter to orthodox doctrine, the second as not only unorthodox, but blasphemous ... He likewise dismisses the third proposition, for although man after the fall of Adam was unworthy of salvation, after the atonement, he again became worthy. Hence, all men are saved.' (I.O.Wade)
Little seems know about the the author, other than what is said on the title of the second French edition of 1783: 'Par feu Mr Pierre Cuppé, prêtre-bachelier en théologie, chanoine régulier de Saint-Agustin, prieur-curé de la paroisse de Boin, diocèse de Saintes'.
*Peignot p.215. Jammes 701 (ms.) and 702 (‘seule édition' 1768!). Wade p.33-44.

DAMHOUDER, Joost de (1507-1581)
Practycke in criminele saken, seer nut ende profijtelijck allen souverains, bailjous, borgermeesters, ende schepenen, &c. Hier is noch by ghevoeght d'ordonnantie op 't stuck van de criminele iustitie in dese Nederlanden. [Bound with:] Practycke in civile saecken, seer nut, profijtelijck ende noodich allen schouten, borgermeesteren, schepenen ende andere rechteren.
Rotterdam, Pieter van Waesberge 1650-49.
2 works in 1 volume. 4to. [VIII],264,3-59 (wanting divisional title); [XXXVI],592,[31]p. With portrait of the author on both titles, 56 woodcut illustrations in the text of the first work and 14 full-page engravings in the second work. Contemp. overlapping vellum. Fine copy. (#30062)
€ 1950

A treatise on criminal law, the first work of its kind published outside Italy, that exercised a lasting influence in Europe. It gives an overview of sixteenth-century legislation, prosecution and punishment of offences like homicide, blasphemy, mutiny, forgery, burglary, adultery, rape, corruption, adultery, incest, sodomy, arson, etc. All this is illustrated by fine woodcuts showing scenes from criminal procedure and justice, including torture. Damhouder asserted that a single indication of guilt was sufficient for torture to be applied to achieve a confession, though he did recognize that too much torture can produce false confessions. It is highly interesting not only for the history of legal customs but also for the social conditions connected with these crimes.
An important part is dedicated to witchcraft, according to Damhouder 'a heinous crime that went unpunished too often because of the ignorance of magistrates'. This is largely based upon Grillandi's Tractatus de hereticis et sortilegiis. Many authors have pointed out that much of Damhouder's work was based upon, if not plagiarized, from a manuscript on criminal law by Philips Wielant not published before 1872.
First published in 1554 in Latin and the same year in French and Dutch translation by the author. It was reprinted many times during the seventeenth century. Here as often bound with the second Dutch edition of the author's work on civil law, first published in Latin in 1567 and in Dutch in 1626.
*Dekkers p.44,4 and 5.

DESCARTES, René (1596-1650)
Brieven, aan veele hoog-geagte personen, van verscheide ampten, geschreven: handelende van de over-natuur-kunde, natuur-kunde, zede-kunst, genees-kunst, wis-kunst, zang-kunst, en werk-daad, enz. Zijnde ten hoogsten dienstig, om de voorgaande werken des schrijvers te verligten, en duidelijker te doen verstaan. Door Renatus Des-Cartes beschreven: en van J.H.Glasemaker vertaalt.
t'Amsterdam, by Jan ten Hoorn 1692.
3 parts in 1 volume, the first 2 parts continuously paginated. 4to. [VIII],664,268p. With numerous woodcut figures in the text. Contemp. vellum. With the bookplate of the well-known Amsterdam book collector Bob Luza. (#32603)
€ 2500


Second Dutch edition. The first volume of the original French edition of Descartes' correspondence appeared 1657, the second volume 1663 and the third volume 1667. The first two volumes of the first Dutch edition appeared 1661, the third volume 1684. The present edition also served as the fourth volume of Descartes' Alle de werken.
*Van Otegem p.614-617. Glazemaker 20.

DESCARTES, René (1596-1650)
Principia philosophiae: of beginselen der wijsbegeerte ... Als mede een nette verhandeling vande verhevelingen, neffens dat van ‘t licht: en ‘t voornaamste der zinnen .... van J.H. Glasemaker, vertaalt.
t‘Amsterdam, by Jan ten Hoorn 1690.
3 parts in 1 volume. 4to. [XXVIII],380,[16], [II],118, 76,[8]p. With an engraved frontispiece, engraved portrait and numerous woodcut figures in the text. Contemp. vellum. Fine copy. (#29236)
€ 2000


Second Dutch edition of the Principia philosophiae, first published in Latin in 1644 and in French in 1647. The first Dutch edition was published in 1657 by Jan Rieuwertz, but that edition did not include the two additional pieces.
This edition is a line-by-line reprint of Rieuwertz' edition. It was made-up of two different prints, one by Jan ten Hoorn, the other by his brother Timotheus. Both had started printing this edition, but considering the hight costs of making the illustrations they agreed to mix their prints and to publish it as one edition. The origins of the gatherings of the two prints can easily be distinguished by the size of the page numbers.
*Van Otegem p.325-331 (fingerprint of 1690b). Glazemaker 16.

Discurs von dem heutigen corrupten Zustand des Müntzwesens im Reich.
Discurs von dem heutigen corrupten Zustand des Müntzwesens im Reich, und wie demselbigen recht und mit Besand wieder aufzuhelffen. [And:] Anmerckungen uber den vor diesem in den Druck gekommenen Discurs ... In welchen die practicirlichte remedia vorgestellet werden, und der Weg gezeigt wird, wie die gröste Difficultäten bey denen in Müntz-Sachen auf dem Reichs-Tag in Deliberation schwebenden dreyzehen, und jüngst dazu gekommenen neun Puncten können erhebt werden, auch was in dieser Materia jetziger Zeit, und sonderlich bey den Müntz-Probations-Tägen am meisten zu wissen vonnöthen ist.
Gedruckt im Jahr Christi 1687 & 1692.
2 parts in 1 volume. 4to. 40; 64p. The second part with a nice woodcut head piece and decorated initial. A few corners with damp stain. Recent blank limp cardboard. (#27509)
€ 750

An anonymous proposal to improve the coinage system in the German states, with additional proposals after five years, perhaps by the same author. The title of the second part continues: Dabey auch zu finden der Werth der ganghafftesten guldenen und silbernen Sorten gegen denen unterschiedlichen Guldnern nach dem Wehrt des gerechten Reichsthalers von 90. Kr. bis 2. fl. auch der Preiss dess feinen Silbers darnach ausgerechnet, und wie die alte Reichs-Gulden, Reichsthaler, Goldgulden und Ducaten von Zeit der alten Müntz-Ordnung de An. 1559. an bis ad Ann. 1623. gestiegen und wieder gefallen. Item, Wie viel die gangbarste guldene und silberne Sorten wägen und fein Silber haben sollen ... The first part has some tables in the text, i.a. a table indicating the value of the Gulden, Reichsthaler, Goldgulden and Ducat from 1582 to 1623.
*Not in Kress, Goldsmiths' or Humpert.

FAIRMAN, William.
The stocks examined and compared: or a guide to purchasers in the public funds. Containing an account of the different funds, from the times of their creation to the year 1807; including the Imperial and Irish annuities, transferrable at the Bank of England, and the stock of public companies. With useful and extensive tables, illustrated by observations and examples. Also, statements of the national debt, a view of the progress of the sinking fund, and an account of the American funds. The fifth edition, considerably improved.
London, printed for Joseph Johnson ... 1808.
VIII,187,[1]p. Uncut in contemp. grey boards, once neatly rebacked with original label. A nice copy. (#40065)
€ 250

A several times reprinted manual for investors, by an accountant at the Royal Exchange Assurance, first published in 1795. 'In the present edition some new articles have been introduced, and all the accounts brought up to the time of publication. Some account is given of the American funds, a subject which has become interesting to many persons in this country.'
*Goldsmiths'-Kress 19691. Kress B.5346.

HOBBES, Thomas (1588-1679)
Leviathan: of van de stoffe, gedaente, ende magt van de kerckelycke ende wereltlycke regeeringe.
Tot Amsterdam, by Jacobus Wagenaar 1667.
[XVI],744,[64]p. With an engraved frontispiece, engraved portrait and folding table. Contemp. overlapping vellum, some dust soiling. Mild browning throughout, some gatherings heavier due to paper quality, as is usual for this book. (#32652)
€ 3500


First Dutch edition, first issue. This translation has been attributed to Abraham van Berckel (or Berkel) (1639/40-1686), a physician, classicist and freethinker, and a good friend of Spinoza. It was forbidden by the Court of Holland on 19 July 1674 as ‘blasphemous and pernicious for the soul'.
Hobbes' influence on Spinoza's political ideas seems indisputable. A Latin translation of Leviathan appeared in 1668 in Amsterdam when Spinoza was working on his Tractatus, and he had a copy of Hobbes' De cive in his library.
*Macdonald & Hargreaves 47. Knuttel, Verboden boeken 185

HOOGHE, Romeyn de (1645-1708)
Spiegel van staat des Vereenigde Nederlands. Waar in de macht en 't vry bestier, van yder der zeven verbonde provincien en haar byzondere steeden, zo in rechten als regeeringen werd ontvouwd. Aanwyzende aan, de in, en uytheemschen, alle de hooge en lage rechtbanken, collegien en ampten, dewelke in de zelve, tot dienst van den staat, en het recht zyn ingesteld. Hoe, wanneer en waar, voor de zelve yets te verrichten is. [Deel 2:] Spiegel van staat. Vervattende de macht der generaliteyt ...]
Amsterdam, Jan ten Hoorn 1706-07.
2 delen. 4to. [XVI],480,55,143,44,[4]; [XX],335,339,[8]p. Met 2 frontispieces, 2 kopvignetten en 16 uitsl. platen door Romeyn de Hooghe. Contemp. perkament. Licht gebruind, overigens fraai. (#23195)
€ 1000


Eerste (enige) druk. Een uitvoerige beschrijving van de staatsinrichting van de Republiek. Het eerste deel behandelt de rechten en instellingen van de provincies, steden en landen van achtereenvolgens Gelderland, Holland en West-Vriesland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Friesland, Overijssel, en Groningen en de Ommelanden. Het tweede deel, met een iets afwijkende titel, behandelt de generaliteit, ook vergeleken met het bestuur van andere staten, haar ontstaan uit de Unie van Utrecht en haar instellingen, de admiraliteiten, hogere en lagere rechtbanken, de Oost- en West-Indische, Surinaamsche en Groenlandsche compagnien, en de staatse bezittingen in Zeeland, Brabant, Limburg en Oost-Friesland.
De Hooghe was, hoewel vooral bekend als graveur, schilder en tekenaar, ook schrijver met grote interesse in politieke, juridische en economische onderwerpen. Hij was oranjegezind, wat hem met name de laatste jaren van zijn leven, gedurende het begin van het tweede stadhouderloze tijdperk, toen dit werk verscheen, veel moeilijkheden opleverde.
*De Buck 6760. J.Landwehr, Romeyn de Hooghe as a book illustrator 103. NNBW VI,k.798.

Kipper und Wipper.
Sammelband of eight legal tracts on the problems that arose about the repayment of debts in the aftermath of the currency crisis in the German states in the early 1620's known as Kipper- und Wipperzeit (‘Tipper and see-saw time').
Published in Augsburg (6) and Frankfurt am Main 1623-24.
Bound in modern vellum with finger tabs. Browned, some staining and a few marginal repairs. (#25040)
€ 850


Due to the rising price of silver by the end of the 16th century silver coins of the German city-states became more worth than their nominal value. After the outbreak of the Thirty Years War currencies were debased to finance the high costs of the war and the coinage system of the Habsburg Empire fell into complete disorder. Coins were weighted to sort out the not-yet-debased pieces ('kippen und wippen') and melted and mixed with copper or other cheap metals and reissued.
It worked in the beginning but soon resulted in worthless coins and the complete disarray of the monetary system. Prices raised enormously and caused dreadful distress among the population. Popular protest arose and a great number of pamphlets denouncing the practice appeared between 1620 and 1622. By 1623 the debased coins were withdrawn, but the losses were carried by the impoverished population.
Johann Wolfgang HILLER (1590-1665)
Responsum iuris. Uber die Frag: ob ein Schuldtner seinen Glaubiger, der ihme vor disem mit guter gangbarer, unverrufter Reichs Müntz lehensweiss aussgeholffen, mit jetziger im Schwang gehender, geringhältig oder gesteigerten Müntz, rechtmessig bezahlen könne. Welchem in diser Edition anderer Rechtsgelehrten bedencken ... angehengt worden ... Editio quarta auctior et correctior. Augusta Vindel [Augsburg], typis Andreae Apergeri, sumptibus Sebastiani Mylii 1624. 4to. [XII],90,[17]p. *Humpert 10962. Kress 411.
M.LUSTRICIUS [Pseud.] Responsum iuris alterum, das ist: kurtzes aber doch gründlichs Bedencken, uber dise Quaestion: ob einer, welcher vor etlich Jahren gut Geldt aussgelihen, oder darmit jährliche Pensiones erkaufft hat, schuldig seye, sich mit groben Müntzen, der jetzigen gestaigerten hohen Valuta nach, bezahlen zu lassen, oder nicht. Nunc quarto & correctius editum. Gedruckt zu Augsburg, durch Andream Aperger 1624. 24p. *Humpert 10963. Kress 402.
Cristoph BESOLD (1577-1638) & Johann Georg BESOLD (1580-1625) Tria Responsa juris. Das ist: drey rechtliche Bedencken, uber nachfolgende MüntzFragen. 1. Ob ein Schuldtner, welcher den Thaler zu 6. fl. eingenommen, selbigen nach Absatz der Müntzen, für einen Gulden, dreyssig Creutzer, wider erlegen müsse? ... Gedruckt zu Augsburg bey Johann Schultes 1624. 70p. The author's names at end of the three pieces. *Humpert 10959. Kress 397. Goldsmiths' 544. Goldsmiths'-Kress 00544.
Johann Wolfgang HILLER. Informatio juris et aequi. Uber die Frag: ob ein jeder, der leicht oder gestaigert Geldt aussgelihen, nach jetzigem reducirten Müntzwesen, sich also müss wider bezahlen, oder ein Abbruch und Detraction geschehen lassen? Editio altera correctior, & auctior. Gedruckt zu Augsburg bey Johann Schultes 1624. 74p. Goldsmiths' 535.
Aussführliches Müntzbedencken: auss dess Heyligen Römischen Reichs publicierten Müntz Edicten, und Constitutionen ... uber die Frag: ob ein Creditor, welcher vor etlich Jahren dem Debitori ein gewisse Summen Geldts, inn damalen gangbarer Reichsmüntz an allerley Geldt Sorten vorgestreckt und gelihen, sich vor dem Debitore mit denen bisshero gestaigerten und verenderten Müntzen ... bezahlen zu lassen schuldig und verbunden seye ... Gedruckt zu Augsburg bey Johann Schultes 1624. [XXX],111,[15]p. Goldsmiths' 551.
Der STATT FRANCKFURT AM MAYN newe TAXORDNUNG, publicirt und angeschlagen Montags den 17. Octobris, anno 1623. Franckfurt bey Johann Schmidlin, anno 1623. 14p. With woodcut coat of arms of Frankfurt on title.
Der STATT FRANCKFURT AM MAYN TAXORDNUNG. Franckfurt bey Johann Schmidlin, anno 1623. 47p. With woodcut coat of arms of Frankfurt on title.
Theophilus GLEICH RECHT [Henning Kniephof] (1596-1663) Consultatio juridica de controversiis ex moneta adulterina noviter exortis secundum adminicula juris ex æquo & bono decidendis, oder, unvorgreiffliches Bedencken, wie nunmehr nach restituirtem rechtmässigen Müntzwesen, die hierauss angesponnene Streitigkeiten mehrentheils, vermüge der rechte und natürlicher Billigkeit, möchten erortert und verglichen werden ... Editio secunda, auctior & correctior, &c. Gedruckt bey Philip Wittel, Inverlegung Johan Birckners 1623. [IV],92,[16]p. *Humpert 10960. Kress S.540. Goldsmiths'-Kress 005369.

KRUG, Leopold (1770-1843)
Betrachtungen über den National-Reichthum des preussischen Staats, und über den Wohlstand seiner Bewohner.
Berlin, bei Johann Friedrich Unger 1805.
2 volumes. XXXII,487; [II],709p. With folding table. Modern half cloth, marbled sides, gilt backs. Small name stamp (‘Prittwitz') on title and blackened stamp on verso of title of second volume only. A very fresh set. (#24164)
€ 750

First edition. A valuable work for the economic and population history of Prussia with a wealth of statistical data. A theologian by education Krug was appointed privy Registrator which gave him access to Prussian state archives. From 1805 to 1834 he was director of the Preussischen Statistischen Bureau, the first institution of that kind in Europe.
Roscher described the present work as ‘one of the first attempts towards a comprehensive statistical work'. Palgrave writes that ‘Krug's opinion that all indirect and personal taxation is ultimately borne by land, and his rejection of such taxes, allows him to be numbered amongst the last followers of the physiocrats'.
*Humpert 7705. Kress B4931. Palgrave II, p.513-4.

LA SAGRA, Ramon de (1798-1871)
Atlas carcelario o coleccion de laminas de las principales carceles de Europa y de América, proyectos de construccion, carruages y objetos de uso frecuente en las prisiones. Primera y segunda serie que contienen las carceles modelos para la Francia, y las construidas en Inglaterra, Escocia, Suiza y Belgica.
Madrid, imprenta del Colegio de sordo-mudos y ciegos 1843.
Folio (39,5x27 cm). Title, index (2p.) and 39 double-page lithographed plans, profiles and plates. Contemp. calf-backed sprinkled boards, small defect at top of back, edges little rubbed. Two leaves with corner cut away just touching printed surface, one leaf with a big closed tear, one leaf with a marginal tear. (#34408)
€ 750


First (only) edition. A rare atlas with ground plans and front and side views of projected and existing cellular prisons in France, England and some other countries including fine plates of tread-wheels and similar machines for ‘labor of the hardest and most servile kind'.
A first series of 25 leaves contains sketches for some 13 different types of buildings for cellular confinement, mostly a groundplan on one leaf and profile views on the next. Most of these are identified only as ‘provincial prisons' with 12 up to 126 cells, including some dome-shaped. Three others are identified as projects for prisons for the cities of Caen, Madrid and Rome.
The second series of 14 leaves is concerned with penitentiary institutions mostly in England and Scotland: groundplans of Westminster and Millbank prison, tread-mill in Gloucester, tread-hand-wheel in Petworth, crank-mill with separators, solitary crank-mill (constructed by Richmond & Son Engineers, Chelmsford) with an ergometer, plan for a prison with 284 cells by John Sibly, chapel-shaped cellular prison, Edinburgh and Glasgow Bridewell, and prisons in Geneva, Lausanne and Ghent.
Most leaves are signed by A.Blouet or Harou-Romain, some are signed by others or are unsigned; all were lithographed by G.Schatter.
Ramon de La Sagra was a Spanish anarchist, political thinker and botanist, now best remembered for his important works on the history of Cuba. He lived in Paris for a time and made extensive travels through Europe with the purpose to investigate the condition of charitable institutions and the prison system in these countries.
More plates from the second series and a third and fourth series announced on the rear cover never appeared. A text volume (104p. in 8vo) issued the same year is not present here.

Law, John. - [DUTOT, Nicolas (1684-1741)]
Reflexions politiques sur les finances, et le commerce. Où l'on examine quelles ont été sur les revenus, les denrées, le change étranger, & conséquemment sur notre commerce, les influences des augmentations & des diminutions des valeurs numéraires des monnoyes.
La Haye, chez les freres Vaillant & Nicolas Prevost 1738.
2 volumes. 12mo. [II],XXI,[1],444; [II],XII,456p. With folding table to volume 1 and 9 folding tables to volume 2. Contemp. calf, gilt backs with double labels, marbled endpapers, red edges, minor and neat repairs to extremities. (#14853)
€ 2500

First edition. An examination of the effects of the increase and decrease of the value of money on public revenue, prices and foreign exchange and in consequence on commerce. The author had been a cashier of the Banque Royale that merged with John Law's Compagnie des Indes in 1720. Until recently his first name was known as Charles and no further biographical details were known.
It is clear that Dutot supported the system of John Law, and his book includes a refutation of Melon's Essai politique sur le commerce of 1734, yet it is according to A.Thiers 'undoubtly the most profound book on Law's system and the causes of its fall'. New editions appeared in 1743 and 1754 and it also was included in Guillaumin's collection Economistes financiers du XVIIIe siècle.
*Kress 4381. INED 1695. EHB 1295. This edition not in Einaudi. Stourm p.93. Palgrave I,p.660.

The best account of the system of John Law

Law, John. - [MARMONT DU HAUTCHAMP, Barthélemy (1682-c.1760)]
Histoire du système des finances, sous la minorité de Louis XV. Pendant les années 1719 & 1720. Précedée d'un abregé de la vie du duc Régent, & du Sr. Law.
La Haye, Pierre de Hondt 1739.
6 volumes in 3. 12mo. LIV,55-204,[II],312; [II],208,[II],286; [XIV],294,[XVIII],246p. With an engraved plate, 2 folding tables printed on both sides and a seal of the Banque Royale. Contemp. calf, gilt backs with double labels, marbled sides and endpapers. Fine set. (#12715)
€ 5500

First (only) edition. An account of the financial operations of John Law and his Compagnie des Indes, including a great number of relative memoirs, letters patent, decrees, declarations, etc.
Marmont du Hautchamp had been an admirer of John Law's system and his book is not written without partiality but has yet been recognized as the best contemporary history of the system and its most precious source.
John Law's operations began with the foundation in 1716 of the Banque Générale, soon afterwards renamed Banque Royale. This was followed by the scheme of colonization known as Mississippi scheme in the Compagnie des Indes which, by absorbing various other chartered companies, acquired the monopoly on the trade to America, Africa and China. Moreover, the company obtained the monopoly of tobacco, the control of the mint, the payment of the national debt, and the farm of the taxes. Within a few years Law's companies thus got almost complete control over France's overseas trade, its currency and public finances. In 1719 the Compagnie des Indes and the Banque Royale were united, and the promising outlooks of the new company lead to an unprecedented speculation in its shares. As known the bubble burst in 1720, cash payments were suspended and Law fled from the country, leaving behind ruined many of his former supporters.
*Kress 4447. Einaudi 3728. Goldsmiths' 7712. Stourm p.73. Palgrave II,p.576.

The only physiocratic utopia, by 'the ablest expositor of the physiocrat system '

[LE MERCIER DE LA RIVIERE, Pierre Paul (1719-1801)]
L'Heureuse nation, ou relations du gouvernement des Féliciens; peuple souverainement libre sous l'empire absolu de ses loix; ouvrage contenant des détails intéressans sur leurs principales institutions civiles, religieuses et politiques; sur leurs divers systêmes et leurs moeurs, tant publiques que privées; détails auxquels a été ajouté un Manuel politique de cette nation.
Paris, Buisson & Lyon, Bruysset 1792.
2 volumes in 1. [VI],LXXI,334; [VI],496p. With an engraved frontispiece. Near contemporary half-roan, gilt back, marbled sides and endpapers. Unobtrusive repair to errata leaf of volume 2. Armorial bookplate of Louis de Givenchy to front paste down. A nice copy indeed. (#30674)
€ 2250

First edition. The only utopia setting out physiocratic ideas by 'the ablest expositor of the physiocrat system'. His best known book L'Ordre naturel et essentiel des sociétés politiques (1767) has been seen as the 'code of physiocratic doctrine', praised by a.o. Diderot and Adam Smith. Le Mercier was primarily interested in political philosophy, here in his last book expressed in the form of an utopia. It was translated into German in 1794 under the title Die glückliche Nation, oder der Staat von Felizien.
Le Mercier had been a councillor of the parliament and from 1757 to 1764 governor of Martinique. He became acquainted with Quesnay and Mirabeau and soon after his return to France became one of the most prominent physiocrats and the chief expositor of their political philosophy.
Louis Alexandre César Taffin de Givenchy (1781-1858) was a founding member and perpetual secretary of the Société académique des antiquaires de la Morinie, Saint-Omer, Pas-de-Calais.
*Einaudi 3304. INED 2790. Not in Kress or Goldsmiths'.

MARX, Karl (1818-1883)
Das Kapital. Kritik der politischen Oekonomie. Herausgegeben von Friedrich Engels.
Hamburg, Otto Meissners Verlag 1903-1904.
3 volumes in 4. Orig. half calf, backs richly gilt, marbled sides, orange endpapers, marbled edges. Bookplate to front paste-downs, old signature in lower outer corner and a very small number in upper corner of front of free endpapers. An attractive set. (#30988)
€ 750

Erster Band. Buch I: Der Produktionsprocess des Kapitals. Fünfte Auflage.
Zweiter Band. Buch II: Der Cirkulationsprocess des Kapitals. Dritte Auflage.
Dritter Band, erster [und] zweiter Theil. Buch III: Der Gesammtprocess der kapitalistischen Produktion. Zweite Auflage.

MARX, Karl (1818-1883)
Il capitale. Critica dell'economia politica. [In:] Biblioteca dell'economista. Serie terza. Volume nono parte seconda.
Torino [Turin], Unione tipografico-editrice 1886.
p.1-685. The whole volume: [IV],903,[1]p. Orig. half calf, gilt back, top of back chipped, cloth sides rubbed and somewhat stained. (#40010)
€ 2500

First complete Italian edition of the first volume. An earlier but abridged edition of the first volume appeared 1879, translated by Carlo Cafiero (Il capitale di Carlo Marx brevemente compendiato da libro primo. Sviluppo della produzione capitalista).
This volume additionally includes Jacoby's L'Idea della evoluzione and Chernyshevsky's Osservazioni critiche su talune dottrine economiche di G.Stuart Mill.

MARX, Karl (1818-1883) & Friedrich ENGELS (1820-1895)
Le manifeste communiste. Traduction nouvelle par Charles Andler. Avec les articles de F.Engels dans la Réforme (1847-1848).
Paris, Société nouvelle de librairie et d'édition (Librairie Georges Bellais) 1901.
Small 8vo. 97,[2]p. Orig. printed orange wrappers. (Bibliothèque socialiste. No 8.) (#17628)
€ 750

First edition of the second French translation. The translation was done after the fourth German edition of 1890. It has the preface of Marx and Engels to the second edition of 1872, Engels' prefaces to the editions of 1883 and 1890, and appended La collaboration de Frédéric Engels à la Réforme de Flocon et de Ledru-Rollin.
A first separate French edition, translated by Laura Lafargue, was published as an offprint from the journal Ere nouvelle in 1895. That edition was followed the next year by a Brussels edition and in 1897 by a new Paris edition.
*Andréas 394. Rubel 70.

MEEK, Ronald L. (1917-1978)
The economics of Physiocracy. Essays and translations.
London, George Allen & Unwin [1962].
432p. With 4 plates. Orig. cloth with dust-jacket. Name on front free endpaper. Very fine. (University of Glasgow social and economic studies, new series 2) (#19211)
€ 175

First edition. Meek's second major book, including annotated translations of basic, partly unpublished Physiocratic texts, and studies on the three ‘editions' of the Tableau économique.

De creatione problemata XXX: cum summarijs singulorum problematum, & indice locorum Scripturae, quae hoc opere explicantur.
Amstelodami, Typis & sumptibus auctoris [Amsterdam, by the author] 1635.
Small 8vo (15x9,5 cm). [XVI],156,[2]p. Contemp. vellum. Mild browning. Stamp on title and verso. Bookplate of Karin Figala. (#32556)
€ 2750

First edition. Printed in his own press, the first Hebrew printing press in Amsterdam founded by Menasseh Ben Israel in 1626, ‘a turning point in the history of Hebrew printing'.
On the title as printer's mark the well-known magic square, divided into 9 squares in which the consonants are arranged in such a way that the same three Psalm words can be read both horizontally and vertically (Psalm 85 vs 11 ‘Veritas e terra orietur/ Truth shall spring out of the earth').
Previously part of the collection ‘Museum Rem. Faesch Basil', founded by the Swiss jurist and art collector Remigius Faesch (1595-1667), stamp on title verso and ex-dono inscription on first blank dated 1647. Karin Figala (1938-2008) was an Austrian historian of chemistry and alchemy and professor at the University of Munich.

Practique brifue pour tenir liures de compte a la guise et maniere Italiana. Publié d'apres l'édition de 1550 par J.G.Ch. Volmer.
Utrecht, Imprimerie ‘de Industrie,' J. van Druten 1894.
Small 8vo. XIX,[64]p. Uncut in orig. printed wrappers. Printed on fine paper. (#25095)
€ 125
A fine facsimile of the first edition printed in Antwerp by Jan Loe, with a short historical introduction.

MESLIER, Jean (1664-1729)
Le testament de Jean Meslier, curé d'Etrepigny et de But en Champagne, décédé en 1733. Ouvrage inédit précédé d'une préface, d'une étude biographique etc. par Rudolf Charles [d'Ablaing van Giessenburg].
Amsterdam, à la librairie étrangère raison R.C.Meijer 1864.
3 volumes. [IV],LXIV,352; [IV],400; [IV],410p. Modern marbled wrappers, backs with printed label. Last leaf of each volume age-toned. An uncut and entirely unopened set. (#27166)
€ 2000

First complete edition of Meslier's Testament, notoriously rare. Parts of it were published earlier by Voltaire, Holbach and Sylvain Maréchal, but these concerned merely Meslier's ideas towards religion. The present edition is of striking importance, as it has printed for the first time Meslier's socialist theories. Meslier's work ‘has a considerable impact and is certainly the most remarkable monument of eighteenth century socialism ... nobody has felt so strongly the faults of society and has expressed the pity and the indignation in such clear and such powerful theories'.
It was published with a long introduction by Rudolf Carel d'Ablaing van Giessenburg (1826-1904), bookseller, freethinker, and founder of the Dutch freethinker's association De Dageraad. It was issued by his own publishing house, no doubt in a very small number of copies.
*A.Lichtenberger, Le socialisme et la Révolution française, p.75-84.

MüLLER, Adam Heinrich (1779-1829)
Die Elemente der Staatskunst. Oeffentliche Vorlesungen, vor Sr. Durchlaucht dem Prinzen Bernhard von Sachsen-Weimar und einer Versammlung von Staatsmännern und Diplomaten, im Winter von 1808 auf 1809, zu Dresden, gehalten.
Berlin, J.D.Sander 1809.
3 volumes. Small 8vo. XXVIII,298; [II],375; [II],328p., volume 2 p.367-368 and volume 3 p.324-325 omitted in the pagination but thus complete. With 3 folding tables. Contemp. marbled boards, black backs gilt decorated with red labels. Small old circular stamp in corner of front free endpapers. A very nice set. (#28783)
€ 2500

First edition of the main work of the author, a series of lectures held at Dresden. Adam Müller was a diplomat in Austrian service, an ardent opponent of the ideals of the Enlightenment and one of the intellectual voices of the post-Napoleonic restoration, and the most important political economist of the German Romantic school. Müller defended a system of organic unity of society and the state and hence rejected the economic individualism of Adam Smith.
*Kress B.5552. Humpert 1059. Not in Goldsmiths' or Einaudi. New Palgrave III,p.561. At length: J.Baxa, Adam Müller, p.100-109.

OELHAFEN VON SCHöLLNBACH, Tobias (1601-1666)
De rei monetariae hodierno, in Imperio Romano-Germanico, statu corruptissimo ac periculosissimo, orationes IIX. Ejusdem, cum praecipuas causas, tum etiam convenientia aliqua remedia, exhibentes ... in Academiâ Altdorffinâ habitae.
Noribergae [Nuremberg], sumptibus Michaëlis & Johannis Friderici Endterorum 1665.
Small 8vo. [XXX],311,[1 blank, 1 errata]p. With an engraved frontispiece showing ‘Moneta dea'. Contemp. vellum. Mild browning. (#35825)
€ 650

First (only) edition. A series of lectures on the miserable state of the coinage in Germany, its causes and possible remedies. The author was a highly esteemed jurist and diplomat in the service of his hometown Altdorf bei Nürnberg and professor at the former university there.
*Humpert 10976 (erroneously dated 1660). Kress 1163. Goldsmiths' 1781. ADB XXIV,p.299.

PARETO, Vilfredo (1848-1923)
Manuale di economia politica con una introduzione alla scienza sociale.
Milan, Società Editrice Libraria 1906.
Small 8vo. XII,579p. Orig. dark red cloth, gilt lettered, red edges. (Piccola Biblioteca Scientifica 13) (#23341)
€ 1250

First edition. Whereas Pareto's Cours was 'simply a brilliant Walrasian treatise', and also the Manuale is 'not more than Walras work done over... [it is] however done over with so much force and brilliance as to grow into something that deserves to be called a new creation'. 'It is better conceived and, more important, much better thought through than the Cours d'économie politique. It is basically a work of synthesis in which Pareto presented a general theory of economic equilibrium which is considerably more refined than Walras's.'
*Schumpeter p.858-861.

PINTO, Isaac de (1717-1787)
Der Jude für die Religion, oder Kern der Beweisgründe wider die Materialisten, nebst neuen Anmerkungen über die natürliche Beschaffenheit unserer Kenntnisse, das Daseyn Gottes, und das Unkörperliche Wesen und die Unsterblichkeit der Seele. Aus dem Französischen des Herrn J. von Pinto, Mitglied der portugiesischen Synagoge, übersetzt.
Frankfurt und Leipzig, bey den Gebrüdern van Düren 1776.
Small 8vo. 19,[V contents and advert.],164p. Contemp. vellum, back with label, red edges. Stamps on title. (#37074)
€ 1250

First (only German) edition. An apology of monotheistic religion and a fierce rejection of the atheism and materialism of the philosophers of his time, inspired by Hemsterhuis' Lettre sur l'homme et ses rapports, yet also a plea for tolerance. The original French edition Précis des arguments contre les matérialistes was published in The Hague in 1774.
Isaac de Pinto was born into a wealthy Jewish family from Amsterdam and well educated, and became one of the most respected men of affairs of his time. He was an advisor to stadholder William IV and director of the East-India Company. He is now best remembered for his important contribution to economic theory Traité de la circulation et du crédit published in Amsterdam in 1771. He also got fame as a defendor of the rights of the Jews Apologie pour la nation juive (1762).

RADICATI, Alberto (1698-1737)
Recueil de pieces curieuses sur les matieres les plus interessantes.
A Rotterdam, chez la veuve Thomas Johnson et fils 1736.
X,14,[2],15-384p. Somewhat later vellum, red edges. Long bio-bibliographical manuscript note in French to front free endpaper. Very mild browning in the beginning. (#40858)
€ 1250

First edition. Radicati was a free-thinker deeply influenced by Spinoza. An Italian nobleman he was exiled from Italy for his attacks on the political power of the church. He fled to England but after the publication of his defence of the right to suicide and euthanasia Philosophical dissertation upon death (1732) fled to Holland.
'Steeped in Machiavelli, Sarpi, and Bayle, Radicati also at some point discovered Spinoza, who became the prime influence on the further elaboration and growing radicalism of his ideas on society and politics, as well as in philosophy and religion. He was entirely at one with Spinoza in regarding 'democratical' government 'the most ancient and agreeable to the natural and free condition of men' (Jonathan I. Israel, Radical enlightenment, p.68-69).
The last part contains a translation of Jonathan Swift's infamous satirical Modest proposal for preventing the children of the poor people from being a burthen to their parents or country.
New editions appeared in 1749 (probably a title-edition of the present) and 1760.
*Bamberger 339. Not in Van der Linde, Wolf or SB.

RAGOUNEAU, A.M. (ca. 1760-1811)
Recherches sur l'état actuel des sociétés politiques, ou jusques à quel point l'économie intérieure des états modernes leur permet-elle de se rapprocher de la liberté et de l'égalité?
A Paris, chez Levrault, frères An XI (1803).
XII,313,[5]p. Contemp. calf, back richly gilt, decorated endpapers, yellow edges, small repair to top of back. Some quires browned, small damp stain in upper right corner. Author's inscription partly cut away by the binder. (#38138)
€ 500

First and only edition. A treatise investigating the relations between political economy and the political aim of a free and righteous society. The author treats the right of property, inequality, luxury and industry, foreign trade and money, etc.
The auhor, an official of the city of Strasbourg, seems well acquainted with the economic literature of his time; he mentions Quesnay and Steuart, and shows particularly admiration for Adam Smith (‘un génie supérieur').
*Kress B.4724. Goldsmiths' 18615. INED 3708.

RICARDO, David (1772-1823)
Grundgesetze der Volkswirthschaft und Besteuerung. Aus dem Englischen übersetzt von Dr. Edw. Baumstark. [Volume 2:] Volkswirthschaftliche Erläuterungen vorzüglich über David Ricardo's System.
Leipzig, Wilh. Engelmann, 1837-1838.
2 volumes. X,V-XXXII,461,[1 blank, 1 errata, 1 blank, 2 advert.]; X,[2],830,[2 errata]p., thus complete. With 6 folding tables. Fine modern half calf, gilt back with black labels, old signature on the original front free endpapers. An appealing set. (#23554)
€ 2500

Second German edition of Ricardo's masterpiece, first published in German in 1821 in a translation by Christ. Aug. Schmidt. This new ‘excellent' (J.K.Ingram) translation with Baumstark's valuable notes became the standard for later editions. Baumstark's preface (p.V-X of the first volume) was apparently later added to only part of the edition, which explains the irregular pagination. It is lacking in most copies.
Edward Baumstark was professor of cameral sciences at the University of Greifswald and a politician with moderate liberal principles.
*Kress C.4476. Humpert 13102. Carpenter, Economic bestsellers before 1850, XXXVII,11.

Eternal peace

[SAINT-PIERRE, Charles Irénée Castel de (1658-1743)]
Projet pour rendre la paix perpetuelle en Europe.
Utrecht, chez Antoine Schouten 1713.
2 volumes. Small 8vo. [VI],400,[9]; [II],423,[9]p. With engraved frontispiece to volume 1. Contemp. calf, backs richly gilt with red label, sides with gilt line borders, marbled edges, minor defect at top and tiny wormhole at foot of back of first volume, very light wear to corners. Without the portrait usually found in volume 2. (#23162)
€ 4500

First edition of the final text of the author's famous Project for eternal peace. This edition was preceded by three much more concise editions printed in very small numbers only.
The first notice of this project dates from 1708 in a small volume titled Mémoire sur la réparation des chemins. The publication of that volume was inspired by a journey made by Castel de Saint-Pierre in the winter of 1706-07 to his native province Normandy during which he had suffered from the miserable condition of the roads. Though the connection does not seem very obvious - Ter Meulen suggests that the roughness of the roads may have reminded him of the lack of smoothness in international relations - yet the volume ends with a notice in which the author remarks that 'during the last 14 days' all his attention was directed to a project 'for the establishment of a permanent arbitrage [between all nations] to settle without war their future differences and to also maintain eternal commerce between them'.
The present final version may have been influenced by the author's presence as secretary to Polignac at the difficult peace negotations of Utrecht in 1712. The ultimate version with the title Projet pour rendre la paix perpétuelle en Europe was published the next year by the Utrecht publisher Antoine Schouten.
Praised for his character by all, there is few agreement about the chimerical character of the works of the abbé de Saint-Pierre. Yet it has been noted that several of his suggestions seem to have been put in practice in some way in our days, including his plan for the establishment of a 'European parliament'.
*Goldsmiths' 5071. Einaudi 933. En Français dans le texte 137. J. ter Meulen, Der Gedanke der internationalen Organisation, p.180-221.

Huygens on chance

SCHOOTEN, Franciscus van (1615-1660)
Mathematische oeffeningen, begrepen in vijf boecken. I. Verhandeling van vijftig arithmetische en vijftig geometrische voorstellen. II. Ontbinding der simpele meet-konstige werck-stucken. III. Apollonii Pergaei herstelde vlacke plaetsen. IV. Tuych-werckelijcke beschrijving der kegel-sneden op een vlack. V. Dertich af-deelingen van gemengde stoffe. Waer by gevougt is een Tractaet, handelende van reeckening in speelen van geluck, door d'heer Christianus Hugenius. Desen druck vermeerdert met een korte verhandeling van de fondamenten der perspective.
[Amsterdam, Gerrit van Goedesbergh 1660; at end: Tot Leyden, gedruckt by Severin Matthysz 1660.]
4to. 544p., wanting A2 (title of the first part), quires Z and Vv bound in wrong order. Contemp vellum, some staining and a few brown spots. Slightly waving from a mostly vague dampstain in upper right corner, with a brown spot affecting the upper margin and one or two lines of last 100 pages. (#32596)
€ 2500

Dutch edition of the author's principal mathematical work, originally published in 1657 in Latin as Exercitationum mathematicarum libri quinque. It includes five treatises on various mathematical subjects. Van Schooten was professor of mathematics at Leiden, and counted Christiaan Huygens and Johannes Hudde among his students. He was well acquainted with a.o. Descartes and Mersenne and publisher of Viète's Opera mathematica.
As an appendix (p.489-500) it has the first appearance in Dutch of Christiaan Huygens' treatise on the theory of probability or game of chance, first published in the Latin edition of this volume as De ratiociniis in ludo aleae. It is the earliest and one of the most important papers on the subject of probability. Bernoulli reprinted it, with a commentary, in his famous Ars conjectandi. According to Todhunter it was originally written in Dutch and translated into Latin by Van Schooten. ‘The treatise by Huygens continued to form the best account of the subject until it was superseded by the more elaborate works of James Bernoulli, Montmort, and De Moivre.'
*STCN 093407548. Bierens de Haan 4223. I.Todhunter, A history of the mathematical theory of probability, p.22-25.

SMITH Jr., Joseph (1805-1844)
Het boek van Mormon. Een verslag geschreven door de hand van Mormon. Op platen genomen van de platen van Nephi.Vertaald door Jozef Smith Jr. Verdeeld in hoofdstukken en verzen met aanhalingen, door Orson Pratt, Sen. Uit het Engelsch vertaald door J.W.F.Völker. Eerste Nederlandsche uitgave, door Francis A. Brown.
Amsterdam, [no publisher] 1890.
Small 8vo. [VI],IX-XVI,650p., thus complete. Orig. brown cloth, back with gilt title, back faded, lower hinge broken. (#26534)
€ 1500

First Dutch edition. This translation of the Book of Mormon was done by J.W.F. Volker, a Dutchman who had spent four years in America and returned to the Netherlands as missionary. His most most important contribution to the Dutch mission was his translation of the Book of Mormon. Volker started translating on June 30, 1886 and had finished the work June 4, 1887. ‘This achievement was remarkable, because President Volker had only four years experience in the English language. Later he told his son J. Henry Volker ... that he knew himself supported by God, without whose help he could not accomplish this work'.
It was then published by order of Volker's successor in the Netherlands elder Francis A. Brown, who contracted a certain Mr. J. Bremer to print two thousand copies. ‘Copies of this first edition were placed in stores throughout the country. Brown sent a beautiful gilded copy to the King and asked him to give it to Queen Emma. The Dutch Book of Mormon was the tenth in a foreign language translation.'
An earlier translation by Paul A. Schettler, the first missionary to the Netherlands, was made already in 1862 but was never published and probably got lost.
*The history of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in the Netherlands and Flanders. NCC records 6 copies in the Netherlands, WorldCat adds one copy in the US (Huntington) and one in Germany (Marburg).

The ‘bible' of individualist anarchist literature

STIRNER, Max [Johann Kaspar Schmidt] (1806-1856)
Der Einzige und sein Eigenthum.
Leipzig, Verlag von Otto Wigand 1845 [i.e. 1844].
[II],491,[3]p. Contemp. embossed cloth. A very nice copy. (#20506)
€ 4500

First edition. The 'bible‘ of individualist anarchist literature which was translated into many languages. Max Stirner, known for his translations of the works of great classical economists like Smith and Say, belonged to the leftist group of adherents of Hegel, which also included Feuerbach and Bruno Bauer. Inspired by among others Proudhon Stirner developed an extreme individualism and absolute egoism, excluding all religious and moral duties and restrictions. For Stirner the ego is the only reality, and egoism the only real principle, hence no authority whatsoever can be accepted. Stirner's book, now a classic, has becomen the basis for all later individualist anarchist writers.
*Nettlau p.35. Stammhammer I,p.241. Menger c.368. Humpert 9388.

STIRNER, Max [Johann Kaspar Schmidt] (1806-1856)
Edinstvennyj i ego sbstvennost' [in Cyrillic]. [With a biography by M.Kronenberg. Translated from the German by V.Ulrich.]
St-Petersburg, Mysl & Leipzig, A.Miller 1906.
X,244,[1]p. With sketch-portrait by Friedrich Engels. Contemp. half cloth. Title with neatly closed tear, last 50 pages with a tiny (1-2 mm) hole. (#41326)
€ 750

One of two editions of the first Russian translation of Stirner's magnus opum Der Einzige und sein Eigenthum (1845), the ‘bible of individualist anarchist literature‘. Another edition dated 1906 appeared in Moscow, no priority known.
*WorldCat locates 2 copies of our edition (Staatsbibliothek Berlin and IISH Amsterdam) and 2 copies of the Moscow edition (Staatsbibliothek Berlin and University of Bern). It was apparently popular in Russia at the time because more editions appeared 1907, 1909 and 1910

TIEDEMANN, Friedrich (1781-1861)
Das Hirn des Negers mit dem des Europäers und Orang-Outangs verglichen.
Heidelberg, Karl Winter 1837.
Folio (32 x 24 cm). [2 advert.],VI,[2],84p. With 6 lithograph plates (somewhat smaller in size). Contemp. grey boards, light wear to back and edges. Usual mild browning, old bookplate and inscription to front paste-down. With loosely inserted erratum-leaf. (#31623)
€ 500

First edition thus. Originally published in English in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in London in 1836 under the title On the brain of the negro, compared with that of the European and the Orang-Outang.
Friedrich Tiedemann was professor in Landshut and Heidelberg and one of the greatest anatomists and zoologists of his time. In his preface to this volume he writes that his research was provoked by the discussions in the English parliament about the slave-trade and the emancipation of the blacks. The object of his investigations was, in his own words, to assay ‘the almost generally accepted theory that negroes are a human race ... much lower than other races, closely related to monkeys'. Tiedemann investigated the brains and crania of black Africans, other human races and orang-outangs in anatomical collections in Europe. The results of his investigations surprised his contemporaries: even though the crania of black Africans were indeed smaller than those of Europeans, their brains were as large and as heavy. Tiedemann concluded that blacks indeed were as capable as Europeans. Once he had concluded no essential differences in the structure of the brain, he investigates whether there are differences in the ‘capabilities' of the soul (Seelen-Fähigkeiten). He concluded that, despite the unfavourable conditions under which many blacks had to live, their intellectual capabilities were equally developped.
In the last chapter Tiedemann goes beyond the limits of physical anthropology - his book was one of the earliest works in that field - and investigates the reasons for prevailing unfavourable opinions about the intellectual faculties of blacks. He concluded that this was fully due to the slave trade and to the inhuman and cruel treatment of the slaves in America. He then proves that blacks indeed were able to great intellectual performances: he gives examples of moral and intellectual achievements of African blacks in the use of natural resources, their institutions, languages, arts and crafts, etc. and he proves that the disregard for the social and religious life of Africans is fully unjustified. He ends with examples of people of black descent who have distinguished themselves in the arts and sciences: Eliza Capitein, Benjamin Banneker, Olaudah Equiano, Ignatius Sancho, Juan Latino, and many others.

A precursor of Lenin

TKACHEV, Petr Nikitich (1844-1886)
Anarkhiya mysli. Sobrani kriticheskikh ocherkov. [At head:] L'Anarchie de la pensée. Par Pierre Tratcheff.
London, Tipografiya zhurnala ‘Nabat' 1879.
12mo (15x11 cm). 78p. Fine recent black boards, back with gilt-lettered red label, trifle rubbed, orig. printed wrappers preserved (Lobstein). (#17178)
€ 1250


First edition thus. The Anarchy of thought is a collection of critical sketches, a polemic against Bakunin et al. It is reprinted from the author's journal Nabat from Deceber 1875 to February 1876.
Tkachev believed that a socialist society could only be realized by a revolutionary vanguard, a closely organised revolutionary party. He was inspired by Jacobinism and Blanquism and much of his ideas were later developed and put into action by Vladimir Lenin, ‘the symptomatic importance of which was not seen until the following century' (Dekker & Nordemann).
*Zaleski 484. Nettlau p.219. Dekker & Nordemann Catalogue 26 (1980): The two Russian revolutions. The libraries of Leon Bernstein and Boris Souvarine, 296.
Added: Nabat. Organ russkikh revoliutsionerov. [At head:] Le Tocsin. Zheneva, Tipografiya zhurnala ‘Nabat' 1878. L,17-172,[1]p., thus complete. Orig. printed wrappers, small repair and small chip.
The journal Le Tocsin appeared from 1875 until 1881, but no issues appeared in 1880. It was first edited by Tkachev, since 1878 by K.Turskii and P.Gretsko. The absence of pages 1-16 is explained by Zaleski by the suppression of the article about the change in editorship. Zaleski's remark that this journal is ‘of anarchist tendency' doesn't seem right.
And: Nabat. Organ russkikh revoliutsionerov. [At head:] Le Tocsin. Nos 3, 4 & 5. London, Tipografiya zhurnala ‘Nabat' 1879. [IV],90p. Orig. printed wrappers, slightly frayed.
*Zaleski p.42.

Les crises industrielles en Angleterre. Traduit sur la 2e édition russe revue et augmentée par l'auteur, par Joseph Schapiro.
Paris, M.Giard & E.Brière 1913.
VII,476p. Contemp. half cloth, marbled sides and endpapers, orig. printed wrappers preserved. Stamp erased from upper wrapper and half-title. (Bibliothèque internationale d'économie politique) (#17913)
€ 350

First French edition. ‘The first coherent and thoroughly economic theory of the business cycle', for which the author spent six months in Great Britain. It originally appeared in Russian in 1894 and served as master dissertation for Moscow University. ‘There could scarcely have been a more masterly master's thesis' (Alec Nove in New Palgrave).
Tugan-Baranovsky was the most important Russian economist of his time. He teached political economy in Saint Petersburg and in Moscow and in the words of Alvin Hansen ‘he began a new way of thinking about the problem of business cycles'.
*New Palgrave IV,p.705. Schumpeter p.1126.

Der Vorbote. Politische und sozial-ökonomische Zeitschrift [as from nr 2: Monatsschrift]. Zentralorgan der Sektionsgruppe deutscher Sprache [as from nr 2: Organ] der Internationalen Arbeiterassociation, redigirt von Joh. Phil. Becker. Jahrgang 1866 [and 1867 and 1868].
Genf [Geneva], Verlag der Association 1866-1868.
3 volumes. [IV],192 (paginated 1-112, 109-156, 161-192, thus complete); [IV],192; [IV],192p. 1866 bound in recent half cloth, 1867 and 1868 entirely uncut and unopened, stitching loosening. Inscribed by Becker on the table of contents of the first issue of 1860: ‘Alle Artikel & Gedichte[?] , die nicht sonst/ unterzeichnet, sind von mir verfasst./ Genf im Juli 1885/ Joh Ph Becker'. (#28759)
€ 3750


The first three years (of six) of the official organ of the German-speaking section of the International Workingmen's Association (First International). It was edited by Johann Philipp Becker (1809-1886), who was also responsible for most contributions. Becker was born in French-occupied Germany but moved to Switzerland in 1838. He became a radical democrat and participated in the Baden Revolution of 1848/49 as leader of the Volkswehr militia. After the failure of the uprising Becker returned to Switzerland and settled in Geneva. In 1860 he came into contact with Marx, and a central figure in the Swiss section of the International.
The journal reports about the activities of the General Council of the International, its various factions and congresses, etc. The issue for April 1867 includes an ‘important message', announcing the coming publication of Marx's Das Kapital, which is repeated in the issues for June and July. The issues for September, October and November include extracts from Marx's Das Kapital, that had appeared early September:
Aus der Vorrede des Buches von Karl Marx: ‘Das Kapital, Kritik der politischen Oekonomie'.
*Répertoire I,p.22.

The foundation of the modern theory of general economic equilibrium

WALRAS, Léon (1834-1910)
Eléments d'économie politique pure ou théorie de la richesse sociale.
Lausanne, imprimerie L.Corbaz, Paris, Guillaumin, Bale, H.Georg 1874[-1877].
2 parts in 1 volume. VIII,208p, p.[209]-407. With 15 figures on 3 folding tables (table 3 loose). Early twentieth-century half cloth, little rubbed and slightly stained, back with gilt-lettered label, marbled sides, new endpapers, nr in ink on front free endpaper. (#30902)
€ 20000

First edition, rare particularly with the second part published in 1877. Walras' most important book in which he exposed the general equilibrium theory. The first part deals with the theory of exchange, the second with the theory of production.
‘Jevons' Theory of political economy (1871) was not well received when it appeared, but it was read. Menger's Principles of economics (1871) was both read and well received, at least in his own country. But Walras' two-part Elements of pure economics (1844-77) was monstrously neglected everywhere despite his infatigable efforts to get the book noticed. That was in part because Walras set himself a task that went beyond Jevons and Menger, his co-discoverers of marginal utility theory, namely, to write down and solve the first multi-equational model of general equilibrium in all markets. In addition, Walras went far beyond Jevons in employing a mathematical model of exposition, and this was enough to scare off most of his contemporary readers. But wheras Jevons and Menger are now regarded as historical landmarks, rarely read purely for their own sake, posthumous appreciation of Walras's monumental achievement has grown so markedly since the 1930s that he may now be the most widely-raed nineteenth-century economist after Ricardo and Marx.'
A second edition revised and enlarged edition appeared 1889.
*Einaudi 5965. Mattioli 3796. M.Blaug, Great economists before Keynes, p.262.

WALRAS, Léon (1834-1910)
Méthode de conciliation ou de synthèse. [In:] La revue socialiste, douzième année, no 136, tome 23, p.385-406.
Paris, Avril 1896.
Orig. printed wrappers, a few marginal tears. (#14186)
€ 250
First printing. Written as early as 1868, and used for a series of lectures held in Geneva in 1872 on L'Exposition et la conciliation des doctrines sociales, and hitherto unpublished. It was intended to form a part of his Etudes d'économie sociale, to be published later that year.

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