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List January 2022

Early Italian banking

Banco di Santo Ambrosio.
Delle leggi, contratti, et governo del Banco Santo Ambrosio della citta di Milano, stabiliti nella congregatione de' Signori Gouernatori di detto Banco. Il giorno di Lunedi, li due del mese d'Aprile M.D.CI. Accetati, & confermati dal Conseglio Generale de' Signori Sessanta di detta città. Giovedi 12. Luglio di detto anno.
In Milano, per Pandolfo Malatesta [1601].
4to. 36,[11 patent by Juan de Velasco]p. Title with woodcut device of the bank, and several woodcut initials and ornaments in the text. Contemp. carta rustica. Printed on fine paper. (#31168)
€ 3000

First edition. One of the earliest printed documents relating to public banking. It contains the statutes, by-laws and governance of the Bank as well as details about its establishment.
The Banco Santo Ambrosio was one of the earliest public banks, established in 1598 upon the theories of Giovanni Antonio Zerbi. Zerbi was a Milanese merchant who had studied the Spanish and Sicilian banks and especially the bank of San Giorgio of Genoa. He published his theories on banking in 1599 as Discorso in forma di dialogo intorno al Banco S. Ambrosio della citta di Milano. Unfortunately the results of the bank were unsatisfactory and it was almost bankrupt in 1630.
*Goldsmiths'-Kress 00305.1. Kress 238. Kress, Italian 99. Palgrave III,p.691 (Zerbi).

The Dutch in Brazil

BARLAEUS, Caspar (1584-1648)
Rerum per octennium in Brasilia et alibi gestarum, sub praefectura illustrissimi Comitis I. Mauritii, Nassauiae &c. Comitis, historia. Editio secunda. Cui accesserunt Gulielmi Pisonis medici Amstelaedamensis tractatus 1. De aeribus, aquis & locis in Brasilia. 2. De arundine saccharifera. 3. De melle silvestri. 4. De radice altili mandihoca.
Clivis [Kleve], Tobiae Silberling 1660.
Small 8vo. [XII],664,[21]p. With engraved title, portrait and coat-of-arms, 3 folding engraved maps (South America and the Western part of Africa, Brazil under Dutch rule, and Mauritiopolis, Recife and surroundings) and 5 folding engraved views. Contemp. vellum, back with red label. With bookplate of the famous book collector John Carter Brown (and his name stamp in red on the verso of the portrait), and bookplate of the book and art collector M. Pimenta Camargo. Without the plate of a sun-eclipse present in part of the copies. (#34387)
€ 6000


Second Latin edition of this famous history of Dutch rule in Brazil under Johan Maurits van Nassau from 1637 to 1644. The first edition in folio is extremely rare and valuable, since most copies and the plates were lost in a fire at the workshop of the printer Blaeu. The plates and maps of this edition are identical with those in the German edition of 1659. The plate of the sun-eclipse was not present in that edition and seems to have been added to a part of this Latin edition only. The present edition has added some contributions to the natural history of Brazil by Johan Maurits' physician Willem Piso.
*Sabin 3409.

BAUMSTARK, Eduard (1807-1889)
Staatswissenschaftliche Versuche über Staatskredit, Staatsschulden und Staatspapiere, nebst drei Anhängen, enthaltend zwei Uebersichten der englischen und französischen Finanzen seit dem elften Jahrhunderte und eine Zusammenstellung aller im europäischen Handel vorkommenden Staatspapiere.
Heidelberg, Georg Reichard 1833.
XX,604p. With 2 folding tables. Contemp. boards, back with orange label, red edges, somewhat rubbed, library label at foot of back, fine engraved bookplate to front paste down. (#31638)
€ 450
First edition. Baumstark was professor of cameral sciences at the University of Greifswald and a
politician with moderate liberal principles. His present Scientific considerations about sovereign credit, sovereign debt and sovereign bonds is founded mainly on Nebenius' Public credit, but ‘contains some independent investigations'. Baumstark is also remembered for his ‘excellent' (J.K.Ingram) translation of Ricardo's Principles, published in 1837, followed the next year by a volume of annotations.
*Kress C.3410. Humpert 6895. Palgrave I,p.125.

BENTHAM, Jeremy (1748-1822)
Chrestomathia: being a collection of papers, explanatory of the design of an institution, proposed to be set on foot, under the name of The Chrestomathic Day School, or chrestomathic school, for the extension of the new system of instruction to the higher branches of learning, for the use of the middling and higher ranks of life. [Bound with:] Chrestomathia. Part II. Containing appendix, No. V. Being an essay on nomenclature and classification.
London, printed for Messrs. Payne and Foss and R.Hunter. By J.M'Creery 1816-16.
2 parts in 1 volume. [II],XXI,[3],IX-X,68,24,69-98; IV,99-347p. With 2 folding tables in part 1. Nineteenth- or early twentieth-century half cloth, back lettered gilt, marbled sides. Bookplate of Sidney Broad to front paste-down. (#30826)
€ 900


First published edition of the first part, together with the very rare pre-publication issue of the second part. The Chrestomathia is Bentham's major book in the field of education. It was written with the purpose to apply utilitarian principles on instruction and higher education. As present education seemed to have become 'irrelevant to the life of the middle class' Bentham wanted to design a scheme for the reform of educational policy, both as regards form and content.
This pre-publication of the second part is of extreme rarity, it was first published the next year.

BENTHAM, Jeremy (1748-1822)
Draught of a new plan for the organisation of the judicial establishment in France: proposed as a succedaneum to the draught presented, for the same purpose, by the Committee of Constitution, to the National Assembly, December 21st, 1789.
No place, no publisher March 1790.
[II],26p. Fine modern boards, back with gilt-lettered red label. Upper margin closely trimmed, touching the pagination in places. (#39116)
€ 750

First edition. The first part only of Bentham's draught for a new French constitution, made up as an alternative for the constitution proposed by the French National Assembly. It contains the draught itself and ‘was one of the first signs of the conversion of Bentham towards more democratic views'. Six more elaborating instalments appeared the following months.
‘The news that the Constitutional Committee had submitted on 21 December 1789 to the National Assembly a draught plan for a new judicial system prompted Bentham to prepare and print in instalments his own Draught of a new plan for organisation of the judicial establishment in France. Instalments, translated by Dumont, began to appear in the Courier de Province for 22-23 May and continued to do so until May. At the beginning of April he addressed a letter to the President of the National Assembly, and one hundred copies of the parts so far printed in England were sent to Paris through the French minister in London, François Barthélemy.'
*Chuo D6-1.

BERNOULLI, Daniel II (1751-1834)
Specimen inaugurale de usu medico tabularum baptismalium, matrimonialium et emortualium quod favente supremo numine auctoritate et consensu gratiosi medicorum ordinis in alma Universitate patria pro summis in medicina honoribus privilegiisque doctoralibus rite consequendis publico eruditorum examini subjicit Daniel Bernoulli Joh. fil. Basileensis ad diem XIV. Junii MDCCLXXI.
Basileae, typis Joh. Henr. Deckeri 1771.
Small 4to. 28p. With folding plate. Disbound. (#39438)
€ 500

First edition. Doctoral dissertation of the Swiss mathematician Daniel Bernoulli, a pioneering work on the application of demographic statistics (baptism, marriage and death) on the medical sciences. He refers to the works of a.o. Kersseboom, Montmort, Süssmilch and Deparcieux.

CHAMOUSSET, Claude Humbert Piarron de (1717- 1754)
Oeuvres de M. de Chamousset, contenant ses projets d'humanité, de bienfaisance et de patriotisme; précédées de son éloge, dans lequel on trouve une analyse suivie de ses ouvrages; par M. l'abbé Cotton des-Houssayes.
Paris, de l'imprimerie de Ph.D.Pierres 1783.
2 volumes. [IV],8,CXL,366; [IV],376,[4]p. With folding table to volume 1 and 8 large folding tables at end of volume 2. Contemp. mottled calf, marbled endpapers and edges, volume labels gone, some wear. (#19610)
€ 1750

First edition thus. A collective edition of the author's memoirs on pauperism and the care for the poor and sick, partly hitherto unpublished. The author was one of the greatest philanthropists of the eighteenth century, admired by among others Rousseau and Voltaire. He is best known for his project of a ‘maison d'association', which has been recognized as an early example of a Friendly Society. It would guarantee each associated member all help needed in case of sickness or distress, not only for the poor and homeless, but also for those who are to rich for charity but can not afford home nursing.
The present volumes include several memoirs related to this project, on which he also spent a part of his fortune. Among the other memoirs are plans for the reform of the Hotel-Dieu in Paris, a ‘political memoir on the children' (with proposals for the colonization of Louisiana!), a plan for the management of the hospitals and the banishment of mendicancy, suggestions for better water and the promotion of public health, etc. etc.
Part of these pieces were published separately, but they are extremely difficult to find, and it seems nowadays almost impossible to get a complete collection.
*INED 1209 (this edition) and 3570/5 (separately issued pieces). Not in Kress (two separately issued pieces 6747 and S.4093). Not in Einaudi (a separately issued piece 4434). Granier 361. Higgs 1500 note. Coquelin & Guillaumin I,p.328. Lichtenberger p.327-9.

[CHARPENTIER, François (1620-1702)]
Discours d'un fidele sujet du roy, touchant l'establissement d'une compagnie françoise pour le commerce des Indes Orientales: adressé à tous les François.
A Paris 1664.
4to. 57p. Neatly rebound in vellum. A tiny worm hole (1 mm) all through. (#29362)
€ 1250

First edition. A pamphlet commissioned by Colbert to propagate the founding of a French East-India Company. Louis XIV had accepted Colbert's proposal for such a company to compete with the English and Dutch East India Companies. It was a joint-stock company granted a 50-year monopoly on the French trade in the East Indies. The Company failed in its attempt to establish a colony in Madagascar and, though it managed to establish a few settlements in the Indian Ocean and South Asia, the company was never able to maintain itself financially. It merged with other companies during John Law's système and after its fall resumed its activities, but never became successful and was finally abolished in 1769.
A second edition appeared the next year. An English translation (A treatise touching the East-Indian trade) appeared 1665, reprinted in 1676 and 1695. A German edition also appeared 1665.
*Goldsmiths'-Kress 01764 and Kress 1150 record the second edition only.

CLOOTS, Jean-Baptiste, dit Anacharsis (1755-1794)
Voeux d'un Gallophile. Nouvelle édition refondue. Suivis de Mêlanges; & d'Anecdotes sur Stiépan-Annibal, soi-disant Prince d'Albanie, ou supplément au livre des Liaisons dangereuses; & d'un Drame sur la mort de Voltaire.
Amsterdam 1786 .
12mo. [IV],288p. Contemp. calf, back richly gilt with red label, red edges. Old bookplate to front paste-down, a more recent bookplate to front free endpaper. An old name (?) and a weak spot on the title covered with old paper on verso. (#17226)
€ 1750

First edition thus, a few pieces has been published previously. In this book Cloots, who became known as ‘orator of mankind', exposed his economic and geopolitical views. ‘It portrayed the fruits of human culture (arts, sociability, taste) as valuable achievements, the domestic effects of doux commerce. He had great faith in the capacity of free trade within a society to regulate itself, and praised the city for stimulating the development of the arts, letters, sociability, and taste, as well as its production of profitable, high-quality manufactured goods. This was the argument of Voltaire's Mondain rather than Rousseau' s first Discourse. Moreover, again unlike Rousseau, Cloots expressed confidence in the possibility of reforming or rather recalibrating the international order. He subscribed to the theory of a balance between sovereign powers, a theory of the international order first expressed much earlier in the century in an essay attributed to Fénelon. Cloots thought that commercial and military rivalry between European powers could be reined in and that it would be possible ‘to see Europe flourish in a perpetual peace'. In this analysis, the challenges of the European order could be overcome while maintaining the basic features of the modern state' (Alexander Bevilacqua, ‘Conceiving the republic of mankind. The political thought of Anacharsis Cloots', in: History of European ideas, vol.38, no 4, 2012, p.554.
Jean-Baptiste du Val-de-Grâce (von Gnadenthal), baron de Cloots, was born to a German noble family but educated in France and became an ardent atheist and 'dechristianizer', changing his Christian name Jean-Baptiste in the Greek name Anacharsis. After the outbreak of the revolution he became a zealous supporter of civil religion, he substituted mankind for God and declared himself 'the personal enemy of Jesus Christ'. The formal inauguration of the cult of reason by the Paris Commune in 1793 marked the triumph of his crusade for a rational religion. Unfortunately he did not long enjoy his victory: falsely accused of treason he was guillotined on March 24, 1794.

Ordonnancie ende instructie naer de welcke voort-aen hen moeten reguleren die ghesworen wisselaers ofte collecteurs vande goude ende silveren penningen, wesende verboden, gheschroyt, te licht oft te seer versleten, ende oversulcx verclaert ende ghehouden voor billoen, daer toe ghecommitteert om de selve te leveren inde munten van sijne Majesteyt, ende al daer bekeert te worden in penninghen van hunne slaghe. [Half-title:] Ordonnancie ende instrvctie voor de wisselaers.
Antwerpen, Hieronymus Verdussen 1633.
Narrow folio (31 x 10 cm). 126 lvs. Title-page with woodcut coat-of-arms. With 3370 woodcuts. Recent blank calf. Printed on heavy paper, mildly yellowed but a good copy. (#33282)
€ 1250

A manual for moneychangers, following the official ordinance of March 1633. It depicts both sides of 1685 coins in their actual size, with descriptive text and their exchange rate. Included are the gold and silver coins in circulation in all European countries. It was also used to detect counterfeit money and a few counterfeit coins are also reproduced. The text of the ordinance is reproduced on the first seven pages. Also published in French by the same publisher the same year.

DOHM, Christian Wilhelm von (1751-1820)
Materialien für die Statistick und neuere Staatengeschichte.
Lemgo, Meyerschen Buchhandlung 1777-85.
5 volumes. [XVI],576; XXVIII,482,[2 adv.]; [XII],3-484, 497-580; XVI,508,[2 adv.]; [IV],672,[2 errata]p., thus complete. With 17 folding tables to volume 2 (being p.337-364) and 7 large folding tables to volume 3. Finely bound in modern half calf, backs richly gilt decorated with the original red and green labels, marbled sides, red edges. Lightly browned as may be expected but a very attractive set. (#29298)
€ 1000

First (only) edition. A complete set of this journal collecting documents on commercial and political history, demography, statistics, etc., including documents never published before, mostly in German but some in French. Included are, among many other pieces, a German translation of Thomas Paine's Common sense, the charter and statutes of the Royal Danish Asian Company, documents on the Spanish economy taken mostly from Ustariz, on France's population and commerce, including John Law's Mémoire sur l'usage de monnoyes (in French), the petition of West Indian plantation owners on the present unrest in America, two of Turgot's edicts (on the suppression of the corvées and on the dissolution of the guilds), documents on the wars between France and England and the sea war between the Dutch Republic and England, the conflict between the duke of Brunswick and the city of Amsterdam, the treaty of peace between the Republic and the North American states, the first printing of Ezechiel Spanheim's Relation de la Cour de France faite au commencement de l'année 1690 (in French), an important source for the history of Louis XIV and his court, and numerous documents on the history, commerce, administration, population, agriculture, industry, etc. of the European nations during the 1770's.
Dohm was a German diplomat, historian and enlightened political thinker. He is best remembered for his important contribution to the emancipation of the Jews (Ueber die Bürgerliche Verbesserung der Juden, 1781-83), written on the request of his friend Moses Mendelssohn. He is also the author of an important critique of Physiocracy (Ueber das physiokratischen System, 1782).
*Kress-Goldsmiths' 11531. Humpert 12331. Not in Kress.

An early Spanish defence of free trade

DORMER, Diego Josef (-1705)
Discursos historicos-politicos, sobre lo que se ofrece tratar en la junta de los ilustrissimos quatro braços del reyno de Aragon, de los eclesiasticos, nobles, cavalleros, è hidalgos, y de las universidades, que el rey nuestro senor Don Carlos Segundo ha mandado congregar este ano de 1684, en la ciudad de Zaragoça, conforme lo dispuesto por su magestad en las Cortes de 1678.
[Zaragoza 1684.]
[XII],48,65-208p., p.50-64 skipped in pagination but thus complete. Contemp. vellum, little wrinkled. Front free endpaper gone, some light staining, but a good copy. (#35552)
€ 1250

First edition. This book, the only book of the author of economic interest, is important for its early defence of free trade. The author has been credited, with Alberto Struzzi, with having been ‘the sole and unheeded champions of the liberty of foreign trade', whereas until the end of the eighteenth century all leading Spanish writers were mercantilist.
‘A rare book, highly innovative and of great importance, which explains with exquisite clearness the true character of commerce, the nature of exchange, the use and utility of money, the inefficiency of the prohibitive system and the means of encouraging the national industry ... It is one of the most original works of its class, bold and precise in its economic doctrine. The author is greatly in advance of his time, and deliberately puts aside the prevailing prejudices, not only in Spain, but throughout Europe' (Colmeiro p.71).
Dormer studied philosohy and law in Huesca and became one of the major Spanish historians of the seventeenth century, royal chronicler of the kingdom of Aragon in 1674.
*Goldsmiths'-Kress 02548. Colmeiro 175

[DUPONT DE NEMOURS, Pierre Samuel (1739-1817)]
Discours prononcé à l'Assemblée nationale, sur l'état & les ressources des finances. Imprimé par ordre de l'Assemblée.
A Versailles, chez Baudouin 1789.
IV,5-218p. With 6 folding tables. Uncut and unopened in modern half vellum, marbled sides. One line on page 111 made illegible, as is the case in other copies. Partly evenly browned. (#20027)
€ 500

First edition. Dupont's speech before the National Assembly of September 24th 1789 on the financial and fiscal situation of France, one of the most important contributions to French financial history. Dupont outlines the enormous resources of France, including the great wealth of the church derived from its landed estates. Yet he emphasizes the necessity for far reaching tax reforms, including the tax exemptions for the clergy, the abolition of the corvee and internal duties. Instead he proposes a flat land tax, thus following the physiocratic principles.
His speech is followed by a Projet du premier décret à rendre pour l'exécution des vues exposés dans le discours précédent and by a Fragment sur les priviléges particuliers que le clergé s'etait attribués.
*INED 1601. Kress, B.1582. Einaudi 1663. Not in Goldsmiths' or Mattioli.

A commentary on Malthus, 'one of his best books'

[DUPONT DE NEMOURS, Pierre Samuel (1739-1817) & Thomas Robert MALTHUS (1766-1834)]
Examen du livre de M. Malthus sur le principe de population; auquel on a joint la traduction de quatre chapitres de ce livre supprimés dans l'edition française; et une lettre a M. Say sur son Traité d'economie politique.
Imprimé à Philadelphie, chez P.M.Lafourcade 1817.
[IV],159p. Fine recent embossed green boards (sd P.Goy & C.Vilaine), back gilt lettered. A wide-margined copy (23,4 x 14,4 cm). Some very light staining, mostly limited to the lower margin. (#20017)
€ 5000

First (only) edition, rare. The last book of Dupont de Nemours published in the year of his death in America. It is the only criticism of Malthus' population theory from a physiocratic point of view, since all other important adherents of Quesnay had died when Malthus published his book. 'Dupont declared that Malthus was too pessimistic; that the poor would not pactice moral restraint; that population pressure spurred men to increase production. America need not fear population growth for 600-1.000 years at least.'
Dupont's criticism of Malthus is followed by a French translation of four chapters of Malthus' great work dealing with physiocracy that were omitted in Pierre Prevost's translation of 1809 (p.39-115), and by a letter from Dupont to Jean Baptiste Say (p.116-59).
*Goldsmiths'-Kress 21762.1. Einaudi 1666. Not in Mattioli. INED 1603. Spengler p.199.

DUVILLARD DE DURAND, Emmanuel Etienne (1775-1832)
Analyse et tableaux de l'influence de la petite vérole sur la mortalité à chaque age, et de celle qu'un préservatif tel que la vaccine peut avoir sur la population et la longévité.
Paris, Imprimerie Impériale 1806.
Large 4to. [IV],210p., with numerous tables in the text. Contemp. half calf, gilt back with green label, small (about 15 mm) defect at foot of back. Tiny wormhole in margin of some 10 leaves, far from printed surface, faint mostly marginal foxing in a few leaves. (#29012)
€ 950

First (only) edition. Statistical investigations into the effect of smallpox on the mortality of the population and the effect smallpox vaccination can have on the the rate of mortality and life expectancy, divided into various classes of age. The mortality tables in this volume have long been in use in France. The author was born in Geneva from an ancient Huguenot family. He was a member of the Académie des Sciences and head of the statistical department of population in the office of the French ministry of the Interior.
*McCulloch p.274. Palgrave I,p.660.

EDELMANN, Johann Christian (1698-1767)
Das Evangelium St. Harenbergs.
[No place, no printer] 1748.
108p. Uncut in recent blank boards. (#36452)
€ 1500

First (only) edition, second issue. A refutation of the false biographical account of Edelmann published in the Altonaische gelehrte Zeitungen (1747), thus indirectly a partial autobiography. Edelmann assumed (unjustified according to Bamberger) that it was written by the Braunschweig Probst Joh. Christian Harenberg.
Edelmann was a German Pietist who having read Spinoza's Tractatus became an enthusiastic propagator of his philosophy. He published several books that brought him into big trouble and his books were burned at Frankfurt in May 1750.
As place of publication have been suggested Glückstadt bei Hamburg, Bad Berleburg and Altona. A part of this edition appeared dated 1747.
*Bamberger 425. Spinoza Bibliografie 37. Not in Van der Linde or Wolf.

EULER, Leonhard (1707-1783)
- Five contributions to the theory of probability, separated from the Mémoires de l'Academie des Sciences de Berlin.
[Berlin] 1751-71.
4to. Bound in 5 parts, apparently at the time, in blue-covered limp boards, comtemp. manuscript label to fronts. Caption-titles. (#41304)
€ 350
1-2. Exposé concernant l'examen de la lettre de M. de Leibnitz, alleguée par M. le prof. Koenig, dans le mois de mars, 1751. Des actes de Leipzig, à l'occasion du principe de la moindre action. [Followed by:] Lettre de M. Euler à M. Merian. Traduit du Latin, 1752.
p.52-64 & p.520-532. *Eneström 176 & 182.
3. Calcul de la probabilité dans le jeu de rencontre, 1753.
p.255-270. *Eneström 201.
4. Sur la probabilité des séquences dans la lotterie génoise, 1767.
p.191-230. *Eneström 338.
5. Solution d'une question très difficile dans le calcul des probabilités, 1771.
p.285-302. *Eneström 412.

By ‘the first in modern times to develop the theory of the division of labor in economy and society' (Karl Marx)

FERGUSON, Adam (1723-1816)
An essay on the history of civil society.
Edinburgh, printed for A.Millar & T.Caddel ... London, and A.Kincaid & J. Bell, Edinburgh 1767.
4to (26,4 x 21 cm). VIII,430p. Recent half cloth, marbled boards with gilt lines, back with gilt-lettered red label, marbled endpapers, red edges. Good copy with ample margins. (#23481)
€ 2750

First edition. Ferguson's magnum opus, described by Thomas Reid shortly before it appeared as ‘a natural history of man, exhibiting a view of him in the savage state, and in the several sucessive states of pasturage, agriculture and commerce'. Karl Marx singled out him as ‘the first in modern times to develop the theory of the division of labor in economy and society'.
Ferguson was professor of moral philosophy at the University of Edinburgh and an outstanding member of the Scottish Enlightenment. He was closely associated with others from Edinburgh, like Hume, Kames and Adam Smith and, by his own admission highly influenced by Montesquieu.
*Kress 6432. Goldsmiths' 10264. Jessop, p.122. International encyclopedia of the social sciences, V, p.369-371.

FLORI, Lodovico (1579-1647)
Trattato del modo di tenere il libro doppio domestico col suo esemplare. Composto dal padre Lodovico Flori della Compagnia di Giesu. Per uso delle case, e collegii della medesimà Compagnia nel Regno di Sicilia.
In Palermo, per Decio Cirillo 1636.
3 parts in 1 volume. Folio. [IV],126,[2]p. & 2 folding lvs., [III]p., 32 lvs, [6]p., 50 lvs, [7]p. Contemp. vellum, few minor imperfections. Vague water stain in uppermargin, a few small marginal ink spots and some foxing and browning as may be expected, upper outer corner of second half rounded without any loss of text. (#20193)
€ 5500

First edition. A rare and important work on double-entry bookkeeping. Other than most works of the period it is not concerned with its application to the transactions of merchants and traders, mercantile bookkeeping, but to non-trading activities. Flori was a Jesuit who spent most of his life in Sicily and he wrote this book for the benefit of Jesuit monasteries and colleges.
Flori was well acquainted with the writings of previous authors, and particularly praises Angelo Pietra's Indrizzo de gli economi (1586). He follows that work closely, and recognises his indebtness to his predecessor, but ‘far outpasses it, making numerous important innovations'. Flori was the first author to introduce the concept of a financial year and the possibily to get at any time an overview of the financial situation. ‘It is an outstanding work. Flori's precise and clear-cut definitions and his illustrations of double-entry books testify to his firm grasp of the subject of bookkeeping ...'
A second edition appeared 1677.
*Goldsmiths'-Kress 00671.3. Kress 517. Kress, Italian 146. Historical accounting literature p.3.

FOURIER, Charles (1772-1837)
Le nouveau monde industriel et sociétaire, ou invention du procédé d'industrie attrayante et naturelle distribuée en séries passionnées.
Paris, Bossange père [&] P.Mongie aîné 1829.
XVI,576p. Contemp. half green calf, back richly gilt, marbled sides, edges and endpapers, back shows very light wear and a minor defect. The first and last leaves show mild browning, else only occasionally some light foxing. (#19935)
€ 1250

First edition of the clearest and most finished exposition of Fourier's social ideas. Though Fourier exposed most of these ideas earlier in his Traité de l'association domestique-agricole the present work contains a more systematic exposition of societarian doctrines. It also contains refinements upon several topics, such as the author's attitude towards Robert Owen, the question of population, and the miserable fate of factory workers (‘bagnes industriels').
*Del Bo 6. Einaudi 1954. Kress C.2280.

'Above his English contemporaries on account of his liberal views on national and international trade ... government interference, medieval corporations and so on' (J.Schumpeter)

GRASWINCKEL, Dirck (1600-1666)
Placcaten, ordonnantien ende reglementen, op 't stuck vande lijf-tocht, sulcx als de selve van outs tot herwaerts toe op alle voorvallen van hongers-noot en dieren-tijdt beraemt zijn ende ghedaen publiceeren; ten meerendeels door de ... Staten van Hollant ende West-Frieslant. By een vergadert ende met verscheyden ghelijck-formighe ordonnantien ende reglementen, met verdere betrachtingen bevesticht.
Tot Leyden, ter Druckerije van de Elseviers 1651.
2 parts in 1 volume. Folio. [XII],203,175,[1]p. Contemp. vellum. Fine copy. (#16259)
€ 2250

First (only) edition. A treatise on the economics of the corn trade that ranks among the best of the scientific achievements of the Dutch in the seventeenth century.
The first part is a Compilation of regulations concerning foodstuffs, all the ordinances concerning the corn trade in the Netherlands from 1501 till 1634. They are printed in Dutch and Latin in double columns, with a Dutch half-title Reglementen op 't stuck van kooren ende greynen.
The second part constitutes Graswinckel's analysis of the processes involved. It is written in Dutch, with some printed annotations in Latin in the outer margins, and has a half-title Aenmerckinghen ende betrachtinghen, op de placcaten, ordonnantien, ende reglementen, &c. over 't stuck van kooren ende greynen ... (Remarks and considerations on the regulations concerning corn and grains).
The author was one of the most prominent lawyers of his time and a strong supporter of republican government. He had assisted Grotius in Paris and acquired fame on his own account with works on public and international law. With the present treatise on the economy of the corn trade Graswinckel also established his name as an economist 'with a remarkable grasp of the subject'. Graswinckel refutes many of the mercantilist views of his time. He strongly defends the interests of the land owners and the agricultural population and argues for the free trade in corn, only in times of national destitution restrictions may be imposed. Schumpeter writes that many historians will place him (and his contemporary Pieter de la Court) 'above their English contemporaries on account of their liberal views on national and international trade ... government interference, medieval corporations and so on'. Schumpeter also notes that Graswinckel, though his views on the harm done by prohibiting the exportation of grains were not new in 1651, yet he had 'a keener sense of the price mechanism involved, especially of the function of forestalling'.
Our copy with a Dutch title-leaf, other copies have a Latin title-leaf Statutorum circa annonam syllabus ..., but the contents is identical.
*Goldsmiths'-Kress 1201. Dekkers p.66,7. Willems 694 (with Dutch title) and 695 (with Latin title). Liesker p.61 and 262. Schumpeter p.197 and 368. Van Rees I,p.326. Laspeyres p.205 and nr 178. Palgrave II,p.256.

HAYEK, Friedrich August von (1899-1992)
Wirtschaft, Wissenschaft und Politik.
Freiburg im Breisgau, Hans Ferdinand Schulz Verlag 1963.
24p. Orig. red printed wrappers. (Freiburger Universitätsreden. Neue Folge, Heft 34.) Presentation copy from the author, inscribed on the half-title: ‘Herrn Kollegen Ramm mit den besten Empfehlungen des Verfassers'. (#37557)
€ 375

First edition. Hayek's inaugural lecture on the assumption of his professorship at the Albert Ludwig University at Freiburg 18 June 1962.
*Gray P7.

[HEYNITZ (or Heinitz), Friedrich Anton von (1725-1802)]
Essai d'économie politique.
A Bâle [Basel], chez les freres Decker 1785.
4to. [II],45p. With 4 very large folding tables. Title with fine engraved view. Printed within two-line borders. Contemp. half calf, gilt back with gilt-lettered red label, speckled boards, red edges, marbled endpapers. Fine copy. (#30752)
€ 1500

First edition. A rare book in which the author sketches the economy of a (fictitious) state, its population and its distribution among the various classes, its agricultural production and needs to feed the population, the income and expenditure of the various classes and of the state, etc. Apart from a treatise on mineral production in Prussia this is is only work.
The author was a mining engineer and acquired fame as the reformer of the mining industry in Saxony and Prussia. He was one of the founders of the Bergakademie (Technical University) of Freiberg, the oldest university of mining and metallurgy in the world.
A German edition (Tabellen über die Staatswirthschaft eines europäischen Staates der vierten Grösse, nebst Betrachtungen über dieselben) was published the next year.
*INED 2239. Not in Kress, Goldsmiths', Einaudi, Mattioli or Humpert.

[HEMSTERHUIS, Frans (1721-1790)]
Alexis ou de l'age d'or.
A Riga, chez Jean Frederic Hartknoch 1787.
Small 8vo. 188p. With folding engraved plate. Contemp. green morocco, back richly gilt with red label, gilt triple-line borders on both sides, gilt inner dentelles, all edges gilt, marbled endpapers. Very light browning towards the end. Fine copy. (#30418)
€ 950

First edition. The author's last book in which he introduces his concept of the golden age and the harmonious development of the individual. The philosophy of Hemsterhuis has been summarized as ‘in spite of its own rationalism an early reaction against rationalism and enlightenment‘. His philosophy has exercised great influence particularly in Germany where he was praised by both classical and romantic writers, including Herder, Novalis and the brothers Schlegel. This edition was published in Riga by Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, who also published a German translation the same year (Alexis oder Von dem goldenen Weltalter).

HOOG, Pieter Henricus van der (Mohammed Abdul Ali) (1888-1957)
Pelgrims naar Mekka.
‘s-Gravenhage, H.P.Leopold 1935.
VIII,251p. With 21 photographic ills by the author on 14 plates, some sketch-maps in the text and endpaper maps. Orig. gilt and red tooled cloth, back somewhat faded. (#25864)
€ 450


First (only) edition. An account of the Hajj of the author, converted to Islam after he had stayed in Jeddah to help improve the sanitary conditions during the pilgrimage to Mecca. Van der Hoog was a Dutch physician, dermatologist and specialist in tropical hygiene. After his return he developed his own skin care products and started his own business to make and sell these products. His business continues to this day under the name ‘Dr. van der Hoog'.
‘Van der Hoog's account of the Hajj is a lively and at many points humorous literary narrative. In his conversion and experience of the Hajj, he did not identify himself as irrevocably divorced from his western background. His Hajj account is mostly structured around the motifs of his settling in Jeddah and his working life in the port as a medical expert. Throughout his book, he tended to shift between topics including his life story, his stay in Jeddah, remembering his small children in The Netherlands as well as his thoughts on Islam, politics and pan-Islam.' (U.Ryad, Dr. Van der Hoog and his Hajj Journey to Mecca.)

HUME, David (1711-1776)
Gespräche über natürliche Religion. Nach der zwoten Englischen Ausgabe. Nebst einem Gespräch über den Atheismus von Ernst Platner.
Leipzig, in der Weygandschen Buchhandlung 1781.
Large 12mo (15,6 x 9,7 cm). [II],396p. Contemp. calf, gilt back, gilt line borders on both sides, marbled endpapers, green edges, back rubbed. (#18318)
€ 1250

First German edition of Hume's posthumously published Dialogues concerning natural religion (1779). Todd notes that they were ‘first composed in the eatly 1750s, revised in the early 1760s, and further revised in the final months of Hume's life'. The translation has been attributed to Carl Gottfried Schreiter (1756-1809), philosopher and translator of a.o. Gibbon's classical history.
The Gespräch über den Atheismus by Ernst Platner (1744-1818) occupies pages 255-396. Platner was professor of fysiology and philosophy and held relations with many enlightened scholars of his time. He here shows ‘increasingly skeptical objections to orthodoxy'.
*Jessop p.42. Todd p.203.

IMHOOFF, Jean Jacques.
L'Art de tenir les livres en parties doubles ou la science de faire écriture de toutes les négociations de banque, ou de commerce, ouvrage divisé en deux parties, dont la premiere contient: un traité raisonné qui enseigne la maniere de coucher sur les livres tous les objets rélatifs au commerce, & celle de tenir les écritures avec ordre & exactitude, &c. La seconde contient, le calcul des fractions rendu facile & à la portée de tout le monde: et enfin, une instruction sur la méthode de faire les écritures concernant l'économie rurale, &c.
A Vevey, chez l'auteur ... et se trouve à Genève, chez Barde, Manget & Compe ... et à Paris, chez Buisson 1786.
4to. [II],[2 errata],[III]-IV,[2],99, [3],35,[40],8,[3],25, [39],18,[16],12, [38],22,[12], 14,[40],66p. = 250 lvs. Contemp. half vellum, marbled boards, old names to front endpaper, minor defect in corner of front side. Signed by the author at end of the preface. (#31296)
€ 1250

First (only) edition. A rare Swiss accountancy book divided into two parts. The larger first part of the volume is a general introduction to double entry book-keeping. The second part deals with fractions in commercial arithmetic and exchange operations.
*Goldsmiths'-Kress 13244. HAL p.160 (erroneously calling for 265 leaves).

[KERSSEBOOM, Willem (1691-1771)]
Observatien, waar in voornamentlyk getoont word wat is gelyktydigheid, dewelke vereischt word in alle calculatien, die tot voorwerp hebben de probable leevenskracht van persoonen van eenigen voorgestelden ouderdom. Hier is bygevoegt een proeve van de constante ondervinding, dat die van de vrouwelyke sexe doorgaans maar eenige weinige jaaren doormalkander langer leven, dan die van de mannelyke; zonder dat zulks verandert de zeekerheid, dat ten allen tyden het getal van die der mannelyke sexe grooter is, dan het getal van die der vrouwelyke.
In s'Gravenhage, by Jan van den Bergh 1740.
Large 4to (26,5 x 20,5 cm). [II],52p. Old marbled wrappers. Vague stamp on title. The author's name appears at end only. (#34403)
€ 650

First (only) edition. One of several memoirs published by the author, actuary, mathematician, statistician and banker and much consulted advisor to the government on life insurance, annuities, and other financial matters. It is a reply to Johan van der Burch who had contested Kersseboom's calculations. This is not included in the author's better known Proeven van politique rekenkunde.
*Bierens de Haan 2455. Bouwstoffen voor de geschiedenis van de levensverzekeringen en lijfrenten in Nederland, p.124.

LOCKE, John (1632-1704)
Unterricht von Erziehung der Kinder, aus dem Englischen; nebst Herrn von Fenelon ... Gedancken von Erziehung der Töchter, aus dem Frantzösischen übersetzet. Mit einigen Anmerckungen und einer Vorrede.
Leipzig, bey Thomas Fritschen 1708.
68,[4],612,[12]p. With engraved portrait of Locke. Contemp. calf, gilt back with label, free endpapers gone, small stamp on first blank. Mildly browned as may be expected, a little more in the margins of the first and last leaves. A nice copy. (#40589)
€ 1250

First (?) German edition. Locke's book on education appeared for the first time in German in 1708 in two different translations: one after the 3rd or 4th English edition by S.G.Starck published in Greifswald, and the present edition, translated after the 5th English edition by Gottfried Olearius. The translator added a long preface (p.3-68). Locke's work is followed (p.477-612) by a translation of Fenelon's Traité de l'éducation des filles (1687).
The greatest English book of its time on the principles and practice of education, first published in 1693 and several times reprinted. Locke's idea for writing about education grew out of a request from Locke's friend Edward Clarke for instructions in educating his children. 'Locke anticipated Rousseau in his advocacy of the natural child, who was to be toughened by exposure to the elements and fed only when hungry. He also interested himself in the moral education of children, stressing the importance of restraint and reason in molding the childs mind.'
*Attig 601. Yolton 212. Christophersen p.103 (erroneously dating this edition 1710).

LöSCH, August (1906-1945)
Die räumliche Ordnung der Wirtschaft. Eine Untersuchung über Standort, Wirtschaftsgebiete und internationalen Handel.
Jena, Gustav Fischer 1940.
VIII,348,[4 advert.]p. Recent boards, orig. printed orange wrappers laid down, back with gilt-lettered orange label. Inscribed by the author: ‘Meinem lieben Dr Hoffman als bescheidene Gegengabe im Naturaltausch, vom Verfasser', slightly shaved by the binder. (#30934)
€ 750

First edition. The author's most important book on location theory, general equilibrium theory applied to space. ‘His is probably the most original book published on economics in the German language between the two world wars. Most scholars would consider themselves lucky if they had added a layer of bricks to an existing wall. Only few scholars can claim to have started a new wall, and even fewer to have started a new building. Lösch is one of those few scholars.'
Lösch was ‘a brilliant man', but as an outspoken opponent of Hitler, a member of the Bekennende Kirche, he did not receive much recognition in Nazi-Germany, and because most of his writing was in German his international reputation remained limited, though an English edition of this was published in 1954 as Economics of location.
*New Palgrave III,p.244-245.

LUXEMBURG, Rosa (1871-1919)
Die Akkumulation des Kapitals. Ein Beitrag zur ökonomischen Erklärung des Imperialismus.
Berlin, Buchhandlung Vorwärts Paul Singer 1913.
[VIII],446,[2]p. Orig. half green calf, gilt back with red label, marbled sides, edges and endpapers. One of a limited number of copies bound by the publisher in a luxurious binding. (#14071)
€ 750

First edition. Rosa Luxemburg's major contribution to Marxian economic theory. The significance of it lies in the proposition of the accumulation of capital as a result of a growing market, thus declaring capitalism unable to produce economic growth without having access to pre-capitalist markets.
Luxemburg was convinced of the rightness of Marx's economic preoccupations and thought that Marxism could only be developed in its details. Aiming at compiling a manual of Marxian economics she yet faced unexpected problems in finding an orthodox-Marxian answer for the problem of the objective limits to capitalist development. However it took her only four months of flushed writing to solve the problem, and she handed her manuscript to her publisher ‘without even reading it '.
*New Palgrave III,p.253-255.

LUXEMBURG, Rosa (1871-1919)
Die industrielle Entwicklung Polens.
Leipzig, Duncker & Humblot 1898.
VI,[2],95,[1]p. Orig. printed wrappers, somewhat stained and damaged, upper wrapper and back with repairs. One leaf loosening, two circular stamps on half-title, else inside clean. (#37018)
€ 1750

First trade edition. The book for which Luxemburg received her PhD from the Faculty of Law and Economics of the University of Zurich. In it ‘she argued that the development of industrial capitalism in the Polish kingdom depended heavily on the Russian market and that the economy of the Polish kingdom would never be more than a part of the tsarist economy. The analysis in this book formed the basis upon which the Polish Social Democratic party built its political program.' (International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, IX, p.496)

A plea for freedom of the press by the former Royal Censor

MALESHERBES, Chrétien Guillaume de Lamoignon de (1721-1794)
Mémoires sur la librairie et sur la liberté de la presse.
Paris, chez H.Agasse 1809.
[II],XIV,435p. With a folding facsimile of Malesherbes's handwriting, printed on both sides. Recent half green morocco, back richly gilt decorated, marbled boards and edges. Fine copy. (#31939)
€ 1250

First (only) edition. These memoirs were written long after Malesherbes had retired as director of the Librairie, the office of the royal censor. He had relaxed censorship permitting the publication of philosophical works that had previously been banned. Though a committed royalist, the King's counsel before the Convention in 1792, Malesherbes was highly critical towards the administration of justice and the fiscal policy of the monarchy.
The first half of this volume includes five memoirs on the Librairie: ‘the necessity to make new rules or to reform the old', ‘on the fundamental principles of the rules that should be made', ‘on the books that should be permitted or tolerated', ‘on the rules to prevent the printing, trade and publication of forbidden books', and ‘elucidation on what are called permissions tacites'.
The second half is taken by a memoir on the liberty of the press. It was written in the end of 1788 and reflects Malesherbes' new insights on the eve of the French Revolution. He defends an almost unlimited freedom of the press as the best means for a well informed population and a prosperous nation.

‘Undoubtedly the most eminent of the Venetian economists of the 18th century‘

[ORTES, Giammaria (1713-1790)]
Errori popolari intorno all' economia nazionale, considerati sulle presenti controversie fra i laici e i chierici, in ordine al possedimento de' beni.
[Bologna, no printer] Con licenza de' superiori 1771.
4to. [II],VII,[1],118,[2 blank]p. Contemp. carta rustica, back covered with marbled paper. Small name stamp (‘dott. Prof. Giovanni Miozzi') on first and last leaves, first leaves with some foxing spots. Fine copy with generous margins. According to Kress, Italian printed in 200 copies only. (#31817)
€ 6500

First edition, very rare. Ortes' first book, written ‘with the scope of upholding the existence of clerical property in mortmain'. Ortes was a Venetian monk who left the cloister but remained in holy orders and was ever a streneous defender of the clergy. ‘The Errori popolari itself is an attempt to treat certain economic questions by following the procedure of a geometric treatise. He sets down certain axioms or what he believes are ‘general truths, derived from immutable and necessary principles from which there is no deviation', and to these he opposes some of what he thinks are popular errors. From these axioms he proceeds to particular cases which he investigates.'
‘Ortes is undoubtedly the most eminent of the Venetian economists of the last [18th] century; his genius, original and sometimes paradoxical, is often opposed to the general tendency of the ideas of his time, and though his researches are occasionally faulty in their method, he has left a deep impress on the history of economic theory. He regards economic laws as immutable, like those of nature; he maintains this in opposition to the opinion usually accepted in his time, which regarded economics only in relation to special interests. Perhaps it is this idea which leads him to distrust the action of the state, considering it not adapted to promote the wealth of a country. While Ortes applied a mathematical method to economics, his arguments are based throughout on abstract theory, disregarding the study both of facts and of history as not appertaining to economic science. This detracts from the value of his labours. Still his works are of weight in the history of economic theory.'
*Kress, Italian 403. Einaudi 4224. Mattioli 2638. Palgrave III,p.43. Theocharis p.40-43.

PARETO, Vilfredo (1848-1923)
Manuel d'économie politique. Traduit sur l'édition italienne par Alfred Bonnet (revue par l'auteur).
Paris, V.Giard & E.Brière 1909.
[IV],695,[4]p. Contemp. half calf, marbled sides and endpapers, orig. printed wrappers preserved, some light wear. (#23343)
€ 500

First French edition of Pareto's Manuale di economia politica of 1906, revised by the author and with 'the mathematical appendix greatly improved'.
Whereas Pareto's Cours was 'simply a brilliant Walrasian treatise', and also the Manuale is 'not more than Walras work done over ... however done over with so much force and brilliance as to grow into something that deserves to be called a new creation'. 'It is better conceived and, more important, much better thought through than the Cours d'économie politique. It is basically a work of synthesis in which Pareto presented a general theory of economic equilibrium which is considerably more refined than Walras's.'
*Schumpeter p.858-861.

'The best that has been written on the Amsterdam Exchange Bank‘

[PHOONSEN, Johannes (1631-1702)]
Berichten en vertoogen, raackende het bestier van den omslagh van de wissel-banck tot Amsterdam. Ingestelt door J.Ph.
Amsterdam, Jan Bouman 1677.
3 parts in 1 volume. Small 8vo. [XVI],[2],62,87,[3],86p. Contemp. vellum, a bit dust-soiled. Bound with another work by the author. (#29710)
€ 2250

First (only) edition. These Memoirs and recommendations relating to the Amsterdam exchange bank are among the best that has been written on financial matters in Holland in the seventeenth century. The author was an esteemed authority on matters of commerce and finance, a man of great discernment and erudition, often consulted by the Amsterdam authorities, particularly when the exchange bank, guaranteed by the city, was involved. Of his many advises in this field the present three are the only printed, but others remain in manuscript.
The author, whose reputation apparently has not suffered from the fact that he had been a ‘book-keeper' in the service of an Amsterdam merchant after he had failed as a merchant on his own account, is best known for an often reprinted handbook on bill-broking Wissel-styl tot Amsterdam, first published in 1676.
The first of these advises is a plea for the establishment of a ‘bank-courant', thus enabling merchants to keep a bank account in currency. The second part contains measures for bettering the security of the bank, no doubt provoked by serious cases of fraud that had happened the last years. The third part contains various other recommendations for improvements in the operating and services of the bank, i.a. a proposal for the pawning of specie and bullion.
*According to Van Dillen in 1921 ‘nowadays very rare'. Economisch-Historische Bibliotheek 1921. WorldCat locates a few copies in the Netherlands, only 2 copies worldwide, none in the US. Not in Kress, Goldsmiths' or Einaudi. At length: J. van Dillen, ‘Een boek van Phoonsen over de Amsterdamsche wisselbank', in: Economisch-historisch jaarboek, VII, 1921.
Preceded by: [PHOONSEN, Johannes]. Wissel-styl tot Amsterdam. Vervattende niet alleen wat men gewoon, maar oock wat een voorsichtigh koopman, tot sijn securiteyt, in de wissel-handel dienstig en noodig is. Mitsgaders ordonnantien, willekeuren en reglementen van wisselen. Tot Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Antwerpen ... Beschreven, en by een vergadert, door J.Ph. Van vele grove fauten verbetert ...
Amsterdam, Jan Bouman en Daniel vanden Dalen 1681. 2 parts in 1 volume. [VIII],336,306,[4]p.
Fourth (?) edition. A very popular handbook on bill-broking for merchants which went through a great number of expanding editions. It includes the regulations and practices of Amsterdam and the other major commercial cities of Europe, for the greater part in the original language with translations into Dutch. Originally published in 1676 the work was republished in succesively expanding editions, since 1729 augmented with a second volume by Isaac le Long, until in the second half of the eighteenth century, and also translated into French.
*Kress 1445 (edition f 1676).

POSTEL, Guillaume (1510-1581)
De orbis terrae concordia libri quatuor, multiiuga eruditione ac pietate referti, quibus nihil hoc tam perturbato rerum statu uel utilius, uel accommodatius potuisse in publicum edi, quiuis aequus lector iudicabit ... Adiectae sunt quoq[ue] annotationes in margine à pio atque erudito quodam viro ...
[Basel, Johann Oporinus 1544.]
Folio. [VIII],427 [i.e. 447, p.447 misnumbered 427], [29]p. Old manuscript vellum over boards, partly blackened and with some imperfections, upper joint cracked but holding. First blank detached, 8 mms of inner margin of title affected by old tape 'repair', a few stains but generally bright and clean. Early ownership inscription of a monastery library on title. Bound with another (incomplete) work. (#38970)
€ 3000

First complete edition. In this his great work Concerning the harmony of the earth Postel advocates a universalist world religion (Christianity), a united world (under French supremacy) and a universal law (natural law), resulting in general world peace. The thesis of the book is that all Jews, Muslims and heathens could be converted to the Christian religion since all religions have common foundations and Christianity best represents these foundations, 'the love of God, the praising of God, the love of Mankind, and the helping of Mankind'. In the first two books Postel set forth the basic dogmas of Christianity and the teachings of Mohammed and the Quran. In the third book Postel treats natural law and the doctrines of the various religions. In the fourth book he examines in which way Jews, Muslims and heathens could be converted to Christianity. This book includes also (p.350) a passage concerning the evangelization of the American Indians.
Guillaume Postel was a French humanist, linguist, familiar with Arabic, Hebrew, and Syriac and other Semitic languages, mystic, diplomat, and religious universalist, affiliated with the Company of Jesus, though not a member.
This edition is of particular importance for the annotations attributed to Theodore Bibliander (1509-1564), a Swiss Orientalist and controversionalist and editor of the first edition in Latin of the Quran, published in Basel in 1543, like the present volume by Oporin. These annotations were most likely added without Postel's knowledge and caused the work to be included in the Louvain Index with the annotation: 'Annotationes in Guilielmum Postellum de orbis terrae concordia, incerti authoris'. The first book, here occupying page 1-125, was published in Paris in 1543 by Pierre Gromors at the cost of the author.
*Adams P2020. Brunet IV, 840. Sabin 64524.
Bound with an incomplete copy of Joachim Vadianus' Epitome trium terrae partium, Asiae, Africae et Europae, 1534.

REBMANN, Johann Christian (1734-1810)
Von dem gerichtlichen und aussergerichtlichen Verfahren in Rechnungs-Angelegenheiten.
Erlangen, Johann Jacob Palm 1789.
4to. [VIII],XII,283p. Nineteenth-century half cloth, gilt back. (#30860)
€ 350

First (only) edition. A work on forensic and non forensic accounting, which according to the author's preface includes 'dasjenige, was zum aussergerichtlichen und gerichtlichen Verfahren bey Abnahm, Revision und Justificatur der Rechnungen, Untersuchungen gegen die Rechnungsführer, dann ihrer und der Revidenten begehenden Verbrechen, bey vorfallenden Streitigkeiten über Rechnungssachen gehöret, und was sowohl der Rechtsgelehrte als der Rechnungsverständige wissen muss'.
*Humpert 12410. Not in HAL.

De sluik- en kroesharige rassen tusschen Selebes en Papua.
's Gravenhage, Martinus Nijhoff 1886.
4to. X,486p. With 44 tinted or coloured lithograph plates and 13 coloured maps (2 folding). Contemp. half calf, back richly gilt decorated, very light wear to joints but strong. A small stamp below the imprint erased with slight damage to the paper. A fine copy, with plates and text in clean condition. (#30491)
€ 1450


First (only) edition. An ethnographical description of the Central and South Moluccas, based upon personal observations of the author, a former resident of Ambon. Geographically arranged: the island Buru, Ambon and the Uliase, the island Serang or Nusaina, the Seranglao- and Gorong archipelago, the Watubela islands, the Keei or Ewaabu islands, the Aaru archipelago, the Tanembar- and Timorlao islands, the Luang-Sermata group, the Babar archipelago, the islands Leti, Moa and Lakor, the island Keisar or Makisar, the island Eetar or Wetar, and the islands Romang, Dama, Teun, Nila or Lina and Serua.

RIESSER, Gabriel (1806-1863)
Kritische Beleuchtung der in den Jahren 1831 und 1832 in Deutschland vorgekommenen ständischen Verhandlungen über die Emancipation der Juden.
Altona, bei Johann Fiedrich Hammerich 1833.
[VIII],218p. Recently cloth-backed boards, orig. printed upper wrapper laid down. Some light soiling and foxing. (#20254)
€ 900

First separate edition, previously published in the author's own journal Der Jude. In his Critical examination of the ongoing negotiations in the years 1831 and 1832 in Germany on the emancipation of the Jews Riesser focuses on the debate on the civil status of the Jews in four German states: Baden, Bavaria, Hanover and Kurhessen.
Riesser was a pioneer of Jewish emancipation in Germany. He studied law in Heidelberg, but was refused to practice as a lawyer because of his religion. In reaction he published his famous pamphlet Ueber die Stellung der Bekenner des Mosaischen Glaubens in Deutschland, which marked a turning point in the struggle for emancipation.
‘Riesser demanded emancipation for the Jews in the name of honor and justice. In his view the claim that the Jews must convert in order to obtain full civil rights was evidence of contempt for religion. The Jews themselves must fight for their own rights, and for that purpose they must organize themselves in special associations, since only by a common effort and not as individuals do they have a chance of success' (Encyclopaedia Judaica).

SEGNI, Giovanni Battista (1550-1610)
Discorso sopra la carestia, e fame.
Ferrara, appresso Benedetto Mamarello 1591.
4tp. 56,[4]p., numbered [1]-48,41-48,[1-4]. Contemp. carta rustica, slightly stained and damaged at back with an old repair. (#37859)
€ 2000

First edition. This Discourse on famine and hunger was written shortly after a disastrous famine had struck Italy and parts of Southern Europe in the winter of 1590/91. It paints a startling picture of the miserable diet of the poor.
Segni, a canon at Bologna, attacked the manner in which the corn trade was conducted. He advocates severe restrictions on the corn trade, if not a total ban on the trade in the means of subsistence. He pleads for firm intervention by the government for the benefit of the poorer classes, in times of famine the rich should share their abundance with the poor. Very rare.
*Mattioli 3326. Nor this nor the second edition of 1602 in Kress, Kress, Italian, Goldsmiths' or Einaudi.

SOLOVIEV [SOLOVYOV], Vladimir (1853-1900)
L'Idée russe.
Paris, Perrin et Cie 1888.
46,[1 errata, 1 blank, 1 advert., 1 blank]p. Orig. printed wrappers, wrappers foxed. Stamp on title. With author's signed presentation inscription on upper wrapper. (#12245)
€ 5000


First edition. Inscribed by the author: ‘J'en fis 100 0000000 années sur l'action ecrit achevée a Paris. Pacques annee 1888' (?).
‘The idea of a nation is not what it thinks of itself in time, but instead what God thinks of it in eternity' (p.6). Solovyov was one of the greatest religious and political thinkers of nineteenth-century Russia, a poet and mystic. In the 1880's he worked to revive the mystical-gnostic elements in the Russian Church and searched for the spiritual nature of the world and universal religion. Solovyov never broke up with Orthodoxy but he promoted the reunification of the Russian Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches.
Though an intimate friend of Fyodor Dostoevsky Solovyov was highly critical towards the latter's nationalism, ominously writing that ‘national self-consciousness is a great thing, but when self-consciousness turns into complacency, and complacency into self-admiration, it can only end in national self-destruction‘.
He was little successful in Russia where he had to struggle against the Tsarist censorship and when visiting Paris in 1888 his ideas neither found much appreciation. Solovyov's ideas were of great importance for the Russian spiritual renaissance at the beginning of the twentieth century, but during the Soviet regime his works were forbidden.

Statuti dell'Università de'Mercanti di Siena.
Statuti dell'Università de'Mercanti, e della Corte de gl'Offiziali della Mercanzia della Città di Siena. Riformati per comandamento del Sereniss. Don Cosimo II Gran Duca Quarto di Toscana. Divisi secondo l'antica forma loro in quattro distinzioni. La prima, tratta del modo di eleggere gl'Offiziali, & i loro Ministri, e de gl'obblighi loro. La seconda, dell'ordine, e modo di procedere nelle Liti, e Cause; e dell'eseguire le Sentenze. La terza, del modo di conuenire tra i Particolari. La quarta, delle cose da offeruarsi dall'arti. Con la tavola di tutte le rubriche.
In Siena, appresso Bonetti 1619.
Large 4to (29 x 21 cm). [XII],160p. With coat of arms of the Medici and woodcut of the Assumption of the Virgin with the city of Siena on title. Contemp. vellum. First and last leaves and some margins stained, tear in p.155/156, p.157-160 with several repairs. (#39508)
€ 2000

Second edition of the statutes of the organization of trade in the City of Siena. First published in 1572 they appear here revised by order of Cosimo II de Medici, grand duke of Tuscany.
It is divided into four parts. The first part deals with the election of officials and their duties, the second part the way of resolving conflicts, the third the relations between the trades, and the fourth details on regulations for the various guilds of Siena, like pharmacists, goldsmiths, booksellers and silk sellers. It includes numerous details of interest for the legal, financial, economic and social history of a seventeenth century Italian city.
*Kress, S.477. Kress, Italian 127. Not in Goldsmith's, Einaudi or Mattioli.

STINSTRA, John (1708-1790)
An essay on fanaticism, addressed to the people of his own persuasion ... In a pastoral letter. Originally written in Dutch. Translated by the Rev. Isaac Subremont.
Dublin, Thomas Ewing 1774.
Large 12mo (16,7 x 10,2 cm). 8,CLVIII,[2],217,[7]p. Contemp. calf, back with red label, extremities little worn, upper joint weak. (#32926)
€ 900

First edition thus. An ardent plea for tolerance in matters of religion, by a Mennonite preacher from Friesland, repeatedly accused of Socinianism.
This English edition was done after the French translation published in Leiden in 1752 with the title Lettre pastorale contre le fanatisme adresseé aux mennonites de Frise. It has a long preface, taking about half of the volume, and notes by the translator, a ‘De Boissy'. The original Dutch edition was published in Harlingen in 1750 with the title Waarschuwinge tegen de geestdrijverij, vervat in een brief aan de Doopsgezinden in Friesland. An earlier English edition appeared in London in 1753, translated by Henry Rimius and without the present long preface.
*Knijff & Visser, Bibliographia sociniana 4337 (Dutch edition) and 4338 (French edition).

A vast program of reforms

[THOME, Louis Marie René, marquis de]
De l'ensemble, ou essai sur les grands principes de l'administration.
A Paris, chez Gattey 1788.
2 volumes. [IV],456; [IV],348p. Contemp. calf, gilt backs, sides with gilt double-line borders and small central coat of arms, marbled endpapers. (#31243)
€ 1250

First (only) edition. A very rare work on public administration which contains a vast program of reforms. It deals with all aspects of governmental science and public welfare. The author treats public morality and moral education, with particular attention for the education of women, and improvements to introduce in the legislation and the administration of justice. An important part of the work is dedicated to urgently needed reforms to be made in public finance. He discusses the injustice and detrimental effects of so many of the existing taxes and proposes the introduction of a single tax.
The second volume treats the 'physical' part of public administration, the promotion of commerce and trade, with chapters on improvements to be made in the army, statute labour, the road-system and river works, the police, the facilities for travellers, postal services, etc. The author also gives suggestions for the local administration on subjects like public health, clean water, loan-offices, fire-service, hospitals, town planning, cemeteries, etc. He ends his work with a discussion of the monarchy with a proposal for the installation of a supreme council.
We were unable to find any information about the author, other than that he has been suggested (together with G.J.B.Target and P.A.Torné) as the author of a somewhat similar work (L'Esprit des Cahiers, see INED 4277 for a long notice), published in 1789 and presented to the States General.
*INED 4317. Not in Kress, Goldsmiths' or Einaudi.

THORBECKE, Johan Rudolph (1798-1872)
Ueber das Wesen und den organischen Charakter der Geschichte. Ein Schreiben an Herrn Hofrath K.F.Eichhorn in Göttingen.
Göttingen, Vandenhöck und Ruprecht 1824.
[II],49p. Contemp. green wrappers. (#20633)
€ 125

First (only) edition. One of the earliest publications of the author in which he developed his ideas on the organic character of history. ‘Thorbecke sees the course of history as an organic process of development. The revolutionary ideal of total change seemed to him not only undesirable but indeed impossible. Every historical period has its own character, but remains determined also by the past.' (J.C.Boogman in Acta historiae Neerlandicae)
Thorbecke was a liberal politician and founder of the parliamentary system in the Netherlands, and three times its prime minister from until his death in 1872. At the time of publication of this Thorbecke studied and teached in Giessen and Göttingen. In 1825 he was appointed professor in Gent and after the Belgian revolution of 1830 became professor of modern history in Leiden.

TRISTAN, Flora (1803-1844)
L'Emancipation de la femme ou le testament de la paria. Ouvrage posthume de Mme Flora Tristan complété d'après ses notes et publié par A.Constant. Deuxième édition.
Paris, au bureau de la direction de La Vérité, Guarin 1846.
16mo. 128p. Uncut in late nineteenth-century half cloth with marbled boards and endpapers. Very mild foxing. (#27453)
€ 950

Second edition, from the same year as the first edition. Flora Tristan's notes on female emancipation, posthumously edited by Alphonse Constant. It represents the ideas of Flora Tristan, but in a form which is not hers.
*Not in Kress, Goldsmith', Einaudi or Mattioli. We could locate only a single copy of the first edition (BnF) and only a few copies of this second edition worldwide.

The best contemporary source for the tulip speculation

De drie t'zamenspraeken tusschen Waermondt en Gaergoedt, over de op- en ondergang van Flora; als mede Floraes zotte-bollen, troostbrief, en een register der tegenwoordige meest geächte hyacinten, met der zelver prysen. Deze tweden druck vermeerdert en van veele fauten gezuyvert. [Bound with:] Clare ontdeckingh der dwaes heydt, der ghener die haer tegenwoordigh laten noemen floristen ... Gedruckt na de oprechte copye 1636.
Haerlem, gedruckt by Johannes Marshoorn 1734.
2 volumes in 1. Small 8vo. [IV],219,[1]p. & 4 pages numbered *104 between p.104 and 105, 24p. With folding engraving. Nineteenth-century half calf, gilt back with red label. Some light spotting and staining. (#40568)
€ 2500


An eighteenth-century reissue of six pamphlets originally published in 1637 (and again in 1643) after the collapse of the speculative tulip bubble in the Netherlands. They were written with the object to warn against future speculation. They are 'the best contemporary source for the tulip speculation ... They do not only give the methods of how the business was done, but they also contain numerous details about the trade and the prices' (Krelage).
The first three pamphlets are written in the form of dialogues ('zamenspraeken') between Waermondt ('Truemouth') and Gaergoedt ('Amasswealth'). Gaergoedt is a weaver who has abandoned his business to become a speculator. He tells Waermondt that he can easily win a few thousand guilders a day by his trading. But Waermondt warns that he will finally loose everything and that it would have been better to remain a weaver.
The main work is continuously paginated but all pamphlets have also own title leaves, each with a woodcut showing the tulip 'Hertoch Eerich': (1) Eerste t'samen-spraeck, tusschen Waermondt ende Gaergoedt, nopende de opkomst ende ondergang van Flora, (2) Tweede t'samen-spraeck ... zijnde het vervolgh ... (3) Register van de prijsen der bloemen, zijnde de derde t'samen-spraeck ... (4) Floraes sotte-bollen: afgemaelt in dichten en sangen door verscheyde autheuren, (5) Troost-brief, aen alle bedroefde bloemmisten, die treuren over 't sterven of 't overlijden van Flora, goddinne der Floristen. The four additional pages contain an explanation of the engraving depicting 'Floraes gecks-kap'. This engraving is different from the (non folding) engraving found in other copies of this.

Bilan général et raisonné de l'Angleterre; depuis 1600 jusqu'à la fin de 1761; ou lettre à M.L.C.D. sur le produit des terres et du commerce de l'Angleterre. Par M.V.D.M.
[No place, no publisher] 1762.
[IV],260p. Modern marbled boards, back with gilt-lettered morocco label. (#30841)
€ 750

First (only) edition. 'The object of [this book] is to show that the wealth and trade of England were not greater than those of France. With this view the author examines into the balance of trade between England and other countries (including Ireland), the national income and debt, exchanges, imports and exports of bullion, war expenditure, etc. He concludes that England, after having been a gainer by her trade during the 17th century, was in 1761 a loser from a monetary point of view. He supports his argument by statistics from official and the best private estimates, and carefully considers objections' (Palgrave).
An English translation (A general view of England; respecting its policy, trade, commerce, taxes, debts, produce of lands, colonies, manners, &c. &c.) appeared 1766.
*Goldsmiths'-Kress 09743. INED 4468bis. Palgrave II,p.753.

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